نوع مقاله : مقالۀ ترویجی
پژوهشگر دکتری معماری، دانشگاه پاریس، فرانسه
عنوان مقاله [English]
Identity and security are fundamental requirements of human, which are expected to be fulfilled to reach favorable human habitation noticed in any process of urban renewal. In order to identify how one can reach to these goals in renovation process, this paper first introduces the abstracted concept of urban identity, in which historical continuity and dependence to human mind are two important aspects and have implications in fundamental, psychological (emotional) and cognitive aspect. Moreover, the effects of identity to develop environmental security and to establish relationship between the two, with accomplished social studies, will be examined. According to these studies, local identity is an appropriate agent for developing affinity and place attachment, commitment and participation of people. Through these three elements, a sense of control and social supervision can be evaluated and people’s tendency to abnormal behaviors in quarter will be prevented. Therefore, there will be negative tendency for abnormalities in quarters with stronger local identity, social supervision and subsequent security. In third section inside a brief analysis of physical-center (modernistic) renewal viewpoint, which had been dominant in renewal for years; two projects of Pruitt-Igor of St. Louis and Navab of Tehran, as two typical cases will be examined with two criteria of identity and security. In addition the process of development of insecure and crime- arise space in these places will be analyzed. This analysis suggests that ignoring existing historical, social and cultural contexts in modernistic renewal can lead to creation of an unidentifiable, abstract and uniform space. This home-like space makes no dependence on its habitants and reduces tendency for participation and controls people and their immigration which may lead to a changing in population composition. These two factors affect insecurity and crime arousal in residential districts. Finally some points about the role of urban identity in making renovation plan and reaching environment security will be suggested, as consequents. Urban renewal not only created by renovation of building and streets, but also its requisite is paying attention to apparent and hidden collection of intrinsic qualities of urban living such as identity, which is outcome of interaction between bodily, actual and meaningful aspects across the time. In modernistic renewal approach, mere physical regarding and ignoring local identity and its social- cultural aspects has made new quarters with no favorable identity, despite physical qualities such as resistance, regular face and new welfare facilities. Weakness of local identity in these developed quarters makes a vicious cycle in which leads to inconsistency in social composition and decreases the quality of living with commitment participation and responsibility s well as environmental insecurity. Identity has a fundamental role and function in enhancing the quality of habitation and can increase participation, commitment and control as well as affecting the security of environment by arousing a sense of place attachment. Therefore, identity can be regarded as a functional objective in the process of renovation in order to create favorable residential condition and security.