نوع مقاله : مقالۀ ترویجی
کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Decay areas in Iran have been defined with the factor of vulnerability against natural disasters (especially earthquake). So, executive strategies in these patterns are based on decreasing natural threats. In result, residential areas, as the settlement of 15% of urban population of the country, are the aim of plans and implementations. Because of numerous limitations on using various ways, destructing and rebuilding (renovation) is the common method and owners of current houses and private sector, with the financial support by national and local government, are the executers of renovation (a participatory method); recent rules support this strategy on renovation of decay areas. This approach should improve habitation circumstances and local services. Financial incentives are the main catalyst of renovation; so, renovation results in more residential units to provide necessary profit. In addition, master and detailed plan of cities enforce parcels to give a part of their area to widen narrow alleys. These changes can impact some social factors such as identity, control, and safety. So, the aim of this paper is to find some solutions to keep and increase mentioned factors. Participation means giving necessary role to all stakeholders in the planning and implementing process. As mentioned, in renovation process inhabitants and private builders are main actors and government prepares necessary supports (such as loan). So, participation is a fix factor in the essay. Identity defines the possibility of identifying a place from other places and is divided to personal and social identity. In distressed areas some social activities generate specific identity in neighborhood. Those activities are done in semi-private and semi-public spaces (such as alley and yard). During renovation, living type changes from personal house to apartment. Also, with widening alley, role of this place changes from pedestrian-base path to car-base way. So, special functions need a new context to remain. Social control leads to a certain level of freedom in obtaining, using, and changing public space. In deteriorated areas, because of strong hierarchy of public spaces, inhabitants have more possibility to control their neighborhood. Also, because of alike social groups, control on behavior is stronger. There are many factors to measure safety in urban space. Some factors are street-eyes, mixed-functions, and dynamic spaces. Also, safety of not-existing natural threats can be mentioned which is on a low level. On renovation process (with participatory methods) natural threats decrease and participation of inhabitants results in keeping and improving social control. In addition, locating public spaces in neighborhood (as a context of social interaction) can increase identity, control, and safety. Empowering local institutes (NGO’s) can improve social capital.