استادیار دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
1. Manzar magazine staff would sincerely like to thank Dr. "Mohammad Atashinbar" for his exemplary help and cooperation
during his studying opportunity trip to France. We value your expertise, strength and patience in creating a valuable position for
Manzar magazine among international experts and academies. His endeavors in registering the magazine as an ISI indexed
journal is an outcome of his proceedings. We hope success and prosperity for him and his successors
2. Iranian Landscape: High Sanctity
There are several shrines located on heights all over Iran. Since pre – Islamic era, numerous pergolas were built on heights
of these soils and some of them; named "Ghalee Dokhtar", still exist from the achaemenian era or earlier when Mehr and
Anāhita were worshiped. The most famous of them are the castles built in Firoozabad and in Kerman cities. They are located
on mountains with the castles same name.
Today, there still exist some holy shrines on the heights of various villages and towns in Iran which are still visited by the local
people. They are usually named "Bibi Shahr Banoo", "Bibi Zobeideh", "Zobeideh Khatoon" and some other female names.
There is a possibility that some Imams or elders of the Islamic era were buried on the mountains and hills visited by local
people for they were holy ancient places. Burial of the dead on a high and far distance place and in solitary was not a tradition
in Islam, unless there is a prior reason for the sanctity of these places.
The "Height"s gain some kind of sanctity and dignity from the ancient Iranian religions; they believe that Anāhita is a tall lady
standing on the high mountains to protect the water and rain on earth.
The shrines and temples are also built over the mountains to monitor plains, rivers and cities.
The high dignity which was closer to the mountains and the sky eventually defined the sacred place in Iran; therefore the
most significant element in Iranian landscape was gradually located on the heights, not in the center.
Ivan, portico, patio and platform are some examples of high positions created in Iranian architecture to magnify the significant
position of the viewer to a noble scene of the nature.
The Khalid Ibn Nabi Shrine near the Kalāleh Village in Golestan province is a good example of Iranian landscape approach
in locating sacred and holy elements on the heights. It is a symbol of sanctity and holiness of Iranian landscape on the high
peaks overlooking the mountains and plains.
"Majid Torkian" has beautifully depicted the identity of the landscape which is an elegant combination of “the view and the
viewer" from his predominant point of view in this photo.