نوع مقاله : مقالۀ ترویجی
دانشیار گروه علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه الزهرا
عنوان مقاله [English]
Since the city growth has increased widely, human relationship have broadened to a great extent and identity is added to every human neighborhoods to organize human relations based on urban settlements, defining urban neighborhood is quite essential in organizing new cities. Recently, the neighborhood and its social environment, especially in social relations, have provided an appropriate basis for better urban renewal planning. Therefore, the current subject of urban neighborhoods has become a serious matter in urban contexts theoretically and scientifically as well. In this paper the “community” is referred to as a small unit in a city. The term community had been eliminated from the field of information society from 1960 to recent decades. Since then, this term had only been used in sciences that are related to social politics. There has emerged a growing interest among urban researchers in regenerating this concept and this realizable reality. A neighborhood is a social unit within the city where people of the same characteristics have come together. Economic position such as the type of job, general social conditions such as the level of benefiting from welfare services and the cultural and racial differences are among different features that makes every neighborhood distinctive from the other. In addition, the neighborhood residents can develop common goals due to the fact that they have common beliefs and cultures and live in the same environment. Urban neighborhoods are different in social organization, functions and resident actions. The latest urban designs and planning control that have transformed the natural mechanism of life indirectly are among the factors that have changed the structure of urban neighborhoods. The above changes had extensive effects on the formation of new perceptions, feelings and behavior in residents. According to urban planning and development process, city formation on the basis of new geographical planning or intervening spatial organization will lead to Physical restructuring of the modern cities in forms of separate and unrelated sectors in the city, while traditional neighborhoods have resulted from natural selection and the natural growth of inhabitants and households. Generally, urban neighborhoods are considered a fundamental matter in the past and present urban planning system in many metropolises of the world including our country. Studying the advent and development process of urban neighborhoods, one can conclude that the neighborhood selection in many large cities of the world is in relation with the available social and economic functions in these cities. This paper is a social critic of spatial and social structure of the cities and also discusses the reasons and how to develop new conceptual and analytical new neighborhoods.