عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This study intends to clear the aspects and characters of the late period of garden making in Tehran from 1882 to 1894. The gardens of this short period offer a variety of samples which are different from traditional gardens of Iran in forms and layouts. This study will focus on the conversion and evolution of the gardens based on the changes in plants and gardening style. The converted style in gardening and horticulture found new characters since the end of 19th century and appeared as a novel result called park. 130 years of garden building in Qajarid Tehran has undergone several stages. The studied period is a part of the last stage and its result has been occasionally called park instead of garden. The beginning of the last stage was started just before 1882. To show off the mentioned details and new arrangements, which was formed on the basis of European gardening and horticulture, the linear spatial structure in the main patterns was replaced by a complex of elegant views picturesquely. The new landscapes, which were less formal than the former layouts, were compatible with the aristocracy that had been formed at the end of the reign of Naser al-dinShah. These views helped for a better presentation of the beauty made by ornamental or ornamented plants. Some new features were also added to the traditional gardens: curvy pathways to change directions and make various views, ponds, sculptures and most importantly flowerbeds which formed based on European floriculture. These elements, their evolution and beauty can clear that the new gardens and parks might follow the European gardens from an aesthetic viewpoint which could be perceived by aristocrats and nobles. In other words the garden makers in Tehran have not been attracted by the layout or general concept of the European garden but the beauty of new arrangement of plants and especially flowers. This fascination revived an old attachment to floriculture in new age.