طبقه‌بندی سبکی خانه-‌مغازه‌ها، در محله‌های چینی‌تبار مالزی (مطالعۀ موردی: جورج تاون و پنانگ)

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده ساختمان و برنامه‌ریزی مسکن، دانشگاه ساینس مالزی، پنانگ، مالزی.

2 پژوهشگر دکتری، دانشکده ساختمان و برنامه‌ریزی مسکن، دانشگاه ساینس مالزی، پنانگ، مالزی.

3 استادیار گروه معماری، واحد کرمان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمان، ایران.

چکیده

خانه-‌مغازه یکی از انواع معروف سازه‌های ساختمانی در شهرهای مالزی است که در آن به‌صورت هم‌زمان از طبقۀ همکف استفاده تجاری و از طبقۀ بالای آن استفاده مسکونی می‌شود. نخستین خانه-مغازه‌ها تحت‌تأثیر سبک خانه‌های بومی مالایی قرار گرفتند. بعد از آن، سبک‌هایی که به تأثیر از غرب از آجر، گچ و تکنیک‌ها و قواعد ساخت‌و‌ساز استفاده می‌کردند، بسیار محبوب شدند. ماهیت تلفیقی این سبک باعث شده که محققان مخالف طبقه‌بندی دقیق و منفرد آن باشند. بااین‌حال، بعضی از سبک‌ها مانند اتپ (سبک بومی مالایی Attap) و آرت دکو (Art Deco) به دلیل ویژگی‌های متمایزشان، به آسانی قابل تشخیص هستند. چندین محقق این سبک از خانه‌-مغازه‌ها در مالزی را به شیوه‌های مختلف، طبقه‌بندی کرده‌اند. این مقاله، شش طبقه‌بندی براساس سبک نمای خانه-مغازه‌ها در مالزی را بررسی می‌کند و سپس با تمرکز بر انواع آن در مناطق کوچکی مثل جرج تاون و پنانگ سعی در تکمیل انواع آن دارد. در این مطالعه، 403 خانه-مغازه ساخته‌شده در دوره‌های مختلف در امتداد هفت خیابان موازی در منطقۀ جورج تاون بررسی شده است. این مجموعه براساس 28 اصل بصری در 5 دسته‌بندی معماری از نمای خانه-مغازه‌ها آغاز شده است. این بررسی تمامی مستندات، مشاهدات و ابزار بصری برای مطالعه اصول نمای بیرونی خانه-مغازه‌ها را مورد استفاده قرار داده است. یافته‌های این پژوهش یک طبقه‌بندی خوب و منظم براساس سبک خانه-مغازه‌ها که طبق مطالعات قبلی (Hassan & Yahya 2012) انجام شده است معرفی می‌کند، سبکی که با محیط و موقعیت مالزی متناسب است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Stylistic Classification of Shophouses in Chinese Settlement Area in George Town, Penang, Malaysia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Sanusi Hassan 1
  • Asif Ali 2
  • Fatemeh Khozaei 3
1 School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
2 Ph.D Candidate, School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
3 Assistant professor, Department of Architecture, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Shophouse is a famous building type in cities of Malaysia with its commercial usage on the ground floor and residence on the upper floor. The earliest shophouses were influenced by the indigenous Malay house style. Later, the styles were popular with the western influences due to the application of brick and plaster, construction technique and regulation of building by-laws. The syncretic nature of its style has incited scholars to be disagreeing on a single and precise classification. However, some styles like ‘Attap' type and Art Deco due to their distinguishing characteristics had an easy recognition. Several scholars have classified these styles of shophouses in Malaysia into different categories. This paper reviews six stylistic classifications of shophouse facades in Malaysia and further refines its genres by focusing it on a small region in George Town, Penang. The study examines 403 shophouses built in various periods along the seven parallel streets in George Town. It embarked with twenty-eight visual elements under the category of five architectural elements of the shophouse façades. The survey applied documentation, observation and visual method for the study of the façade elements. The findings suggest a fine tuned stylistic classification of shophouses based on a previous study of Hassan & Yahaya (2012) which is considered more pertinent in context of Malaysia.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Shophouses
  • colonial architecture
  • Stylistic study
  • façade analysis
  • George Town
• Ahmad, A. G. (1994). The architectural style of the Peranakan Cina. Paper presented at the Minggu Warisan Baba dan Nyonya, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
• Ahmad, S., & Chase, S. C. (2012). Style representation in design grammars. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 39(3), 486-500.
• Al-Obaidi, K. M., Wei, S. L., Ismail, M. A., & Kam, K. J. (2017). Sustainable Building Assessment of Colonial Shophouses after Adaptive Reuse in Kuala Lumpur. Buildings, 7(4), 87.
• Ali, A. (2013). Syncretic Architecture of Fatehpur Sikri: A Symbol of Composite Culture. Journal of Islamic Architecture, 2(3), 101-105.
• Ali, W. N. W., Hadi, N. H. A., & RizallindaIshak, N. (2015). An Overview on the Typology of Shophouses’ Façade at the Heritage Area in Ipoh City. Paper presented at the Postgraduate Conference on Global Green Issues (Go Green), UITM, Perak, Malaysia.
• Aranha, J. (2013). The Southeast Asian Shophouse As A Model For Sustainable Urban Environments. International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 8(4), 325-335.
• Baroldin, N. M., & Din, S. A. M. (2012). Documentation and conservation guidelines of Melaka heritage shophouses. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, (50), 192-203.
• Chan, C.-S. (1994). Operational definitions of style. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 21(2), 223-246.
• Chan, C.-S. (2000). Can style be measured?. Design studies, 21(3), 277-291.
• Chan, C.-S. (2001). An examination of the forces that generate a style. Design studies, 22(4), 319-346.
• Chang, T. C., & Teo, P. (2009). The shophouse hotel: Vernacular heritage in a creative city. Urban Studies, 46(2), 341-367.
• Chun, H. K., Hassan, A., & Noordin, N. (2005). An influence of colonial architecture to building styles and motifs in colonial cities in Malaysia. Paper presented at the 8th International Conference of the Asian Planning Schools Association.
• Elnokaly, A., & Wong, J. F. (2015). Demystifying vernacular shop houses and contemporary shop houses in Malaysia; a green-shop framework. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 30th International PLEA conference 2014.
• Han, W., & Beisi, J. (2015). A morphological study of traditional shophouse in China and Southeast Asia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, (179), 237-249.
• Hassan, A. S. (2009). The British colonial ‘divide and rule’concept: its influence to transport access in inner city of George Town, Penang. Transportation, 36(3), 309-324.
• Hassan, A. S., & Yahaya, S. R. C. (2012). Architecture and Heritage Buildings in George Town, Penang (Penerbit USM), Penerbit Usm.
• Idid, S. Z. A. (1995). Pemeliharaan warisan rupa bandar. Malaysia: Badan Warisan.
• Ismail, S., & Mohd-Ali, N. (2011). The imaging of heritage conservation in historic city of George Town for city marketing. Procedia Engineering, (20), 339-345.
• Ismail, W. H. W., & Shamsuddin, S. (2005). The old shophouses as part of Malaysian urban heritage: The current dilemma. Paper presented at the 8 th International Conference of the Asian Planning Schools Association.
• Lee, L. M., Lim, Y. M., & Nor’Aini, Y. (2008). Strategies for urban conservation: A case example of George Town, Penang. Habitat International, 32(3), 293-304.
• Li, T. L. (2007). A study of ethnic influence on the facades of colonial shophouses in Singapore: a case study of Telok Ayer in Chinatown. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 6(1), 41-48.
• Mansor, R., Mydin, M. A. O., Sani, N. M., Rahim, A., Roosli, R., & Hassan, H. (2012). Classification of Inheritance Shop Houses in George Town, Penang-UNESCO World Heritage Site. Analele Universitătii Eftimie Murgu Resita. Fascicula de Inginerie, 19(1), 137-145.
• Matthiesen, H., Jensen, J. B., Gregory, D., Hollesen, J., & Elberling, B. (2014). Degradation of archaeological wood under freezing and thawing conditions—effects of permafrost and climate change. Archaeometry, 56(3), 479-495.
• Mohit, M. A., & Sulaiman, M. B. (2006). Repeal of the rent control act and its impacts on the pre-war shophouses in Georgetown, Malaysia. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 79(1),107-121.
• Savage, V. (2001). Singapore shophouses: Conserving a landscape tradition. SPAFA Journal (Old series 1991-2013), 11(1), 5-22.
• Tan, Y. W. (2015). Penang Shophouses: A Handbook of Features and Materials, Tan Yeow Wooi Culture & Heritage Research Studio.
• Tjoa-Bonatz, M. L. (1998). Ordering of housing and the urbanisation process: Shophouses in colonial Penang. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 71(2 (275)), 123-136.
• Wakita, Y., & Shiraishi, H. (2010). Spatial recomposition of shophouses in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 9(1), 207-214.
• Wang, C., Vergeest, J. S., Wiegers, T., van der Pant, D., & van den Berg, T. (2003). Exploring the Influence of Feature Geometry on Design Style. Electrical and Computer Engineering Series:«Computational Methods in Circuits and Systems Application, 21-28.
• Widodo, J. (2011). Architectural Conservation in Singapore. SPAFA Journal (Old series 1991-2013), 21(3), 1-14.
• Yung, E. H., Langston, C., & Chan, E. H. (2014). Adaptive reuse of traditional Chinese shophouses in government-led urban renewal projects in Hong Kong. Cities, (39), 87-98.