موقتی بودن منظر

نوع مقاله: ترجمه

نویسندگان

1 گروه انسان شناسی اجتماعی، دانشگاه منچستر، انگلستان.

2 دانشگاه آزاد تهران مرکز، ایران

3 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شوشتر، ایران.

چکیده

منظر و موقتی بودن آن اصلی‌ترین نقطۀ اشتراک میان باستان‌شناسی و مردم‌شناسی فرهنگی-اجتماعی است. مقالۀ حاضر نشان می‌دهد که موقتی بودن منظر را می‌توان با «دیدگاه ثابت» انسان که همچون فرضیه‌ای از پیش اثبات شده در رفتار و ادراکش نهفته است، فهمید. معنای منظر در تقابل با معنای زمین، طبیعت و فضا آشکار می‌شود.
مفهوم «Taskscape» الگویی از فعالیت‌های ثابت را نشان می‌دهد و موقتی بودن ذاتی آن در تعاملات منظم یا الگوی طنین آن نهفته است. با در نظر گرفتن ارتباط منظر و Taskscape، در نهایت تمایز میان این دو از بین می‌رود و می‌بینیم که اساساً خود منظر امری موقتی است. چند نمونۀ عینی در ارتباط با مباحث مزبور برای فهم بهتر مخاطب آورده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The temporality of the landscape

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tim Ingold 1
  • Translation: Motahareh Faali 2
  • Rasa Moradi 3
1 Department of Social Anthropology, University of Manchester, UK.
2 Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Iran
3 Azad Shoushtar University, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Landscape and temporality are the major unifying themes of archaeology and social-cultural
anthropology. This paper attempts to show how the temporality of the landscape may be understood
by way of a 'dwelling perspective' that sets out from the premise of people's active, perceptual
engagement in the world. The meaning of 'landscape' is clarified by contrast to the concepts of land,
nature and space. The notion of 'taskscape' is introduced to denote a pattern of dwelling activities,
and the intrinsic temporality of the taskscape is shown to lie in its rhythmic interrelations or patterns
of resonance. By considering how taskscape relates to landscape, the distinction between them is
ultimately dissolved, and the landscape itself is shown to be fundamentally temporal. Some concrete
illustrations of these arguments are drawn from a painting by Bruegel, The Harvesters

• Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the Implicate Order. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
• Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Connerton, P. (1989). How Societies Remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Daniels, S. and Cosgrove, D.(1988). Introduction: iconography and landscape. In The Iconography of Landscape (eds D. Cosgrove and S. Daniels). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-10.
• Durkheim, E . (1976 [1915]) . The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (trans . J . W . Swain) . London: Allen & Unwin, 2nd edn.
• Gell, A. (1992). The Anthropology of Time: Cultural Constructions of Temporal Maps and Images. Oxford: Berg.
• Gibson, J. J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
• Goodwin, B. (1988). Organisms and minds: the dialectics of the animal-human interface in biology. What is an Animal? (ed. T. Ingold). London: Unwin Hyman, 100-9.
• Gould, P. and White, R.(1974) . Mental Maps. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
• Guyer, J. (1988). The multiplication o f labor : gender and agricultura l change in modern Africa . Current Anthropology, 29: 247-72.
• Ingold, T. (1986a). The Appropriation of Nature: Essays on Human Ecology and Social Relationships. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
• Ingold, T. (1986b). Evolution and Social Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Ingold, T. (1990). An anthropologist looks at biology. Man (N.S.), 25(2): 208-229.
• Ingold, T. (1992b) . Culture and the perception o f the environment . Bush Base: Forest Farm. Culture, Environment and Development (eds E . Crol l an d D . Parkin) . London : Routledge , 39-56.
• Ingold, T. (1993) . Technology, language, intelligence: a reconsideration of basic concepts. Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution (eds K . R . Gibso n and T . Ingold) . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 449-72.
• Kubler, G. (1962) . The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
• Lewontin, R. C. (1982). Organism and environment. Learning, Development and Culture (ed. H. C. Plotkin). Chichester: Wiley, 151-70.
• Marx, K. (1930) . Capital, Vol. I (trans E. and C. Paul, from 4th German edn of Das Kapital, 1890). London: Dent.
• Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). The Phenomenology of Perception (trans. C. Smith). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
• Oyama, S. (1985). The Ontogeny of Information: Developmental Systems and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Pittendrigh, C. S. (1958). Adaptation, natural selection and behavior. In Behavior and Evolution (eds A. Roe and G. G. Simpson). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 390-416.
• Reed, E. S. (1988). The affordances o f the animate environment: social science from the ecological point of view. What is an Animal? (ed. T. Ingold). London: Unwin Hyman, 110-26.
• Reynolds, P. C. (1993). The complementation theory of language and tool use. Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution (eds K . R . Gibson and T. Ingold) . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 407-28.
• Richards, P. (1991) . Against the motion (2) . Human Worlds are Culturally Constructed (ed. T. Ingold). Manchester: Group for Debates in Anthropological Theory.
• Saussure, F. de (1959). Course in General Linguistics (trans. W. Baskin). New York: Philosophical Library.
• Sorokin, P. A. and Merton, R . K . (1937) . Social time: a methodological and functiona l analysis . American Journal of Sociology, 42(5): 615-29.
• Thompson, E. P. (1967). Time, work-discipline and industrial capitalism. Past and Present, 38: 56-97.
• Tuan, Y-F . (1979). Thought and landscape : the eye and the mind's eye . The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes (ed. D. W. Meinig). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 89-10.
• Wikan, U. (1992). Beyond words: the power of resonance. American Ethnologist, 19(3): 460-82.
• Young, M . (1988) . The Metronomic Society: Natural Rhythms and Human Timetables. London: Thames & Hudson.