عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The study of the historical trend of the term “Tower” (equivalent in Persian to Borj) in dictionaries shows that it was seminally used to refer to the fortifications constructed at the corner of cities, castles and palaces. It gradually underwent semantic development and nowadays, minarets have given their position to the towers used for various purposes. Towers have served diverse and numerous applications in Iran. Besides in the perimeter of the castles, they were also constructed on the two sides of the caravansaries’ entry gates for such purposes as lookout and surveillance. The dovecotes were also used to be called pigeon towers as some tombs have become to be known as tower or turret. A number of turrets on the top of which fire was set to guide the lost individuals were also called tower. The present study aims to study the Iranian towers from the visitors’ point of view. The study has made an attempt to adapt the meaning and root of the term "tower" in the course of history after its etymology. It will be figured out in a subtle look at the meaning of the term that the Persian dictionaries have largely pointed to a defensive, security and military function of tower. Through meticulous examination of the term’s meaning and root, it can be found out that in Persian dictionary, the defensive, security, and military functions of it have mostly been focused, while in Arabic language, attentions have been mostly paid to its information provision aspect. A vast spectrum of tower functions, generally classified under four titles, namely symbolic, information provision, functional and military, can be found out in an investigation of the historical towers registered in Iran’s Administration of Cultural Heritage and Tourism. Using scrutiny, it is made evident that a large number of the towers were served as the multiple purpose constructions . In addition it seems there is a relationship between the towers’ shapes and uses as well as between their geographical scattering and their different applications and this is to be elucidated in further research.