عنوان مقاله [English]
The signification of landscape as a concrete and conceptual fact has objective and subjective figures to define the relation of man and the environment. This signification as a very important concept from the pastexists in the culture and language of Iran. Frequent appearances of the word “Manzar” in Persian literature with a large width of meanings that can change it to active signification is an evidence to confirm its importance and antiquity of in Persian culture and civilization. In ancient Persian literature the concept of landscape is mostly seen in the meaning of objective figure. In objective figure see the observer looks at the environment as it is the result of his distinction explanatory and selectivity among the environmental objects visible in a scene. In the contemporary age “Nima” rose and suggested a new pattern in literature I a way that his opinion and function can form a pivot in evolution of the landscape in Persian literature. Nima created a new look to the nature in the culture of Iran with suggestion of the dramatic expression against the narrative expression. In this view, the direct description and comment of environment was replaced with reciprocal association and reciprocal conversation between the poet and the environment. In Nima’s opinion the “poet” isn't only the narrator of nature but is in the mood of dialogue with it. Changing in the point of view is a very important subject in Nimayi poems. The subjective meaning of landscape is formed in the contemporary literature since the environment is both observer and aim and seeing and describing is as to be seen and to be described.
“Landscape” as a concept that have special instance in the language have a long attendance in Persian literature, an attendance that is an evidence in comprehension of this concept in the Iranian thought. The association of Iranian man with the nature and the way it has been associated in the foundations of Iranian civilization, makes the concept of “manzar” an evidence of that relation. Words like “manzareh”, “monazereh” , “nazargah” and other word like them are derived from the base of “nazar” and the concepts estimated from them demonstrates the point that Iranian mind have an active and relative definition from that word. We can find this activation in the two-sided function of that word. “Landscape” in Persian literature has three meanings.
With that rich and impressive attendance of “landscape” concept in the
Persian culture, art and literature we can assume that concept _ with the up-to-date definition in the scientific circles _ is the pivotal base in Iranian literature, that is the dramatic expression in Nimayi poem. Dramatic literature permits the modern literature to make the concept of “landscape” in both two faces of objective and subjective.