عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to protect the identity of Iranian urban spaces, studying about and extracting the main features of Iranian traditional urban spaces are necessary. Squares are not necessarily urban spaces, but as we have seen throughout the history, being located in the city context, they have gradually transformed into urban spaces with designed bodied. Reviewing the physical aesthetics of such historical squares leads to understanding their specific features. Particularly, research pursuant to the study the features of historical urban spaces is incoherent. In the present paper, common achievements respecting historical urban spaces of Iran are investigated. These common features are as follows: each space- to be defined- needs to have limiting elements; in all urban spaces, right corners and emphasis on symmetry axis are abundantly found; to access all Iranian urban spaces, there is always a spatial continuity; wherever not inconsistent with the space function, Iranian used to take advantage of fountains, plants or both; and in all Iranian spaces-whether architectural and urban-Iranian specific architectural elements have been used. By examining these features and classifying them into aesthetic principles, the system layers upon square elements and their compositions can be concluded. Finally, system layers upon square elements are briefly categorized in the form of “elements system” including architectural elements system, natural elements, temporary and permanent artifacts, and in the form of “composition system” including elements compositions, geometric, spatial, color, light, and materials systems. The layering system can be used in designing modern squares.