واکاوی مفهوم نوسازی در سیر تحول رویکردهای مداخله در بافت‌های شهری

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

کارشناس ارشد شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

چکیده

وسعت زیاد بافت‌های فرسوده شهری در کنار معضلات و پیچیدگی‌های فراوانی که در حل معضلات مربوط به آنها وجود داشته، مسئولان امور شهری را بیش از پیش نیازمند بازنگری و اتخاذ رویکردهای جدید جهت مقابله با این معضلات کرده است. رویکردهای مرمت و بهسازی شهری در سیر تحول و تکامل خود از "بازسازی"، "باززنده‌سازی"، "نوسازی" و "توسعه مجدد" به "بازآفرینی" و "نوزایی" شهری تکامل پیدا کرده و در این مسیر، گذاری از حوزه توجه صرف به کالبد به عرصه تأکید بر ملاحظات اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی و هنری را تجربه کرده است. امروزه ساکنان بافت‌های فرسوده از مشکلاتی بیش از مشکلات کالبدی و نفوذناپذیری رنج می‌برند. هرچند مشکلات کالبدی در جای خود اهمیت دارد، اما مسئله اساسی، پایداری و تأثیرگذاری رویکردهای اتخاذ شده است، زیرا بدون در نظر گرفتن ابعاد دیگر، مسئله فرسودگی به ظاهر اگر هم حل شده باشد، پایدار نخواهد بود و در مدت‌زمان اندکی علاوه بر گسترش فرسودگی، مشکلات بیشتری در این حوزه بروز پیدا می‌کند.
این مقاله با استفاده از روش توصیفی و تحلیلی، به بررسی سیر تحولات مداخله در بافت‌های فرسوده، با توجه به تجارب جهانی و گرایش‌های نوین شهرسازی می‌پردازد. نتایج این بررسی نشان می‌دهد شیوه مداخله موثر در این بافت‌ها نیازمند برخوردی سیستماتیک و رویکرد "فرایندمحور" است؛ بدین معنا که روند برنامه‌ریزی به جای نگرش صرفاً کالبدی، نیازمند نگرشی همه جانبه و متقابل در زمینه‌های کالبدی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی و فرهنگی است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The evolution of the concept of renovation in intervention approaches of urban fabrics

نویسنده [English]

  • Fatemeh Mohammadi Aydaghmish
M.A in Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology.
چکیده [English]

Reviewing the conditions of our towns and developments which occurred in recent decades (since 1300), compared with the past, indicates that nowadays, the cities have changed in many aspects , lost their logical, constructive and composed relationships and replaced by a new concept of urbanization. Consequently, distressed urban areas have become the production of conceptual break of time and space and also along with that, one-dimensional interpretations have led to continuity and accelerated obsolescence rate. The question is whether the major concerns of urban renewal are impermeability and physical instability? And whether by solving these physical problems, there would be no other problems in distressed areas? Are social, cultural and economic aspects important in renovation plans?
Large scale of distressed urban areas, with numerous problems and complexities and the failure of many projects in finding the appropriate solution, has made urban officials to revise their plans and adopt a new approach to tackle the problems of these areas. Approaches to urban development have evolved from reconstruction, rehabilitation, renovation and redevelopment to "regeneration" and "renaissance". In this way, the transition from the realm of mere attention to physical emphasize to social, economic, cultural and artistic aspects is evident. Although physical problems are important, the main issue is sustainability and effectiveness of the approaches which have been adopted. In fact, regardless of other aspects of distressed areas and ignoring internal capacities of them might lead to undermine social context and identity of these areas over time. So, the problems seem to be solved, but the results would not be sustainable and soon again increasing and broader problems might be seen. Accordingly, the aim of the present paper is revisiting the concept of renewal, recreation and urban development. In this context, the evolution of urban restoration and its dimensions are studied in different periods.
In this paper, after reviewing the approaches of intervention in distressed areas and using descriptive and analytical methods, according to international experiences and new trends in the world, it was concluded that the most effective way to intervene in these areas requires a systematic and "process-orientated" approach. Indeed planning in these areas requires a holistic approach with physical, social, economic and cultural aspects rather than a purely physical perspective which requires an attitude of "top-down" management and has resulted in failure or limited success of the plans. Recent approaches, such as "regeneration" and "renaissance" seek multi-dimensional aspects of renovation such as "social engagement", "integrated planning" and "internal-development". In these approaches, besides landscaping and environmental sustainability, various aspects of sustainability have been taken into consideration. So, it is recognized that renovation is primarily endemic and social, cultural and financial issues vary in every country, city, neighborhood or elsewhere. So, renovation is not making buildings and, besides the technical aspects, it is interdisciplinary and multifaceted which is beyond the resources of urban management. In this regard, reviewing the definition of urban renewal and methods of intervention are the facts that should be put on the agenda in urban planning projects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Distressed area
  • Urban restoration Approaches
  • Urban regeneration and renaissance
  • sustainable development