بازخوانی یک سنت در هنر باغسازی ایران

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

دکتری علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، استاد گروه مهندسی فضای سبز، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

زری‌اسکیپ1 یا منظره‌پردازی خشک بخشی از علم منظر است که در مواجهه با شرایط و اقلیم‌های گرم و خشک مطرح می‌شود. زری‌اسکیپ متشکل از هفت اصل کلی است که در راستای دستیابی به آبیاری بهینه در منظر تعیین شده‌اند. این اصطلاح برای اولین بار در سال 2000 میلادی در فرهنگ آکسفورد تعریف شد، درحالی‌که اصول آن سال‌ها پیش در منظرسازی باغ‌های ایران به کار رفته است.  باغ ایرانی راهی به سوی تبیین توانمندی انسان در هم‌زیستی با طبیعت به ویژه در مناطق خشک و خشن کویری است. این امر که انعکاس هوشمندی و هوشیاری ایرانی است تاکنون به دست فراموشی سپرده شده و تنها در دروس باغ‌سازی به آن اشاره شده است. در این نوشتار تلاش می‌شود به منظور پاس‌داشت توانمندی ایرانیان در حوزه باغ‌سازی اثبات شود هفت اصل منظرسازی در مناطق خشک، با سبک باغ‌سازی ایرانی هماهنگی دارد. همچنین برای به تصویر کشیدن شکوه تفکر ایرانی دو اصل دیگر نیز معرفی می‌شود تا سندی استوار و انکارناپذیر بر اثبات تولد این دانش در ایران‌زمین باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Readout a Tradition in Art of Iranian Gardening

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohsen Kafi
Ph.D in Gardening Sciences and Green Space, Professor of Green Space Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Brocade Netscape or Xeriscape is part of the landscape science introduced when facing warm and dry climate. Netscape Brocade is composed of seven principles which are designated to achieve optimal irrigation. The term was first defined in the Oxford Dictionary in the year 2000, while its principles have been used for many years in the landscaping of Persian Gardens. Persian garden is a path toward illustrating how mankind can coexist with nature, especially in a harsh desert environment. This issue which is a reflection of Iranian intelligence and awareness has been forgotten and nowadays is just being mentioned in the gardening courses. In order to respect and acknowledge the Iranian competence in this field, the article tries to prove that the seven principles of landscaping in arid areas are consistent with the style of Persian gardening and landscaping. The first principle of the Xeriscape is pertaining to its structure which has been met similarly in the Persian garden. It expounds that each different region defined in Xeriscape in terms of importance has its special planting design which is in agreement with that area. The next principle limits the use of grass to the areas in which, in addition to its different use and aesthetic aspects, the use of water can be optimized. Iranian utilization of grass for the purpose of producing animal feed, harvesting herbs, and fertilizing soil are signs of adherence to this principle. Drought-resistant plants used in Iranian Gardens due to their economic characteristics have been noticed in Persian Gardens.  The landscaping in arid regions, using elements to enhance the capacity of agricultural soil modifier, which means to promote water storage in soil, is taken into consideration. Persian garden as a microclimate is the natural home for birds that directly or indirectly reinforces the soil and increases the capacity of its agricultural and biological pest-repelling of plants without the use of any chemicals. The importance of nature in Iranian culture, its pertinent traditions, and particular irrigation methods to reduce surface evaporation of water and optimize water usage illustrate that the principles of Xeriscape were followed in Persian gardens. To portray the glory of Iranian way of thinking, two other principles (creating the shade and making the windbreak) are also introduced so that the fact that this knowledge was born in Iran is substantiated by strong and irrefutable evidence

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Xeriscape
  • Iranian Garden
  • landscape
  • Brocade Netscape