نوع مقاله : مقالۀ ترویجی
1 استاد بازنشسته، مدرسة معماری دهلی نو، هند
2 کارشناس ارشد معماری منظر، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Contextualism in modern literature was considered the basic principles of the Mughal gardens. The two valuable experiences on renovation of Humayun Tomb Garden and Babur Gardens demonstrate the importance of site selection and location of the garden at their natural context. These projects represent different considering space, planting pattern, reconstruction of irrigation system of the garden and restoration of roads, water networks and pavements. The three aspects of geometry and spatial function, fruitful and decorative gardening patterns as well as integrated irrigational systems of these two gardens have all resulted in close policies and strategies in order to fulfill an exact restoration in accordance with the adopted documents. Regardless of the expert selection of the site, these landscapes are significantly identifiable owing to the simple systems of space separation, the integration of water as an aesthetic and useful element in completing the spatial structure the garden and creating fruitful and shading plants and trees. Although the gardens were built with the purpose of personal use and enjoyment, they are now considered as a part of the urban area whose change of characteristics in the urban context can be identified by the following:
1 - Change in use (function): from being a personal property to a recreational park.
2 - Planting features: from being a fruitful garden to green parterres.
3 - Spatial composition: from being densely planted to offering openness and angle deposition.
The practical and theoretical aspects may affect the maintenance and usage monitoring programs and their functions in the future. The general policy of landscape restoration of Babur garden was minimal interference due to the geometry of the garden according to visible landmarks and historical available documents. The planting pattern is as simple as what is depicted in miniature paintings of this garden and inherent the simplicity of the garden.
Homayun tomb garden has undergone serious and multiple changes throughout the time. However, the main structure and dimensions of the Char-Bagh was kept intact and the renovation was completed by maintaining its current characteristics. The main purpose of renovating the garden as the first and most important tomb completed in the early stages of the Mughal regime was to show some of natural ideas of the prior garden regarding the relationship between pathways and parterres and successful regeneration of irrigational system to recreate the spirit of life in the garden.
Overall, landscape garden or recreation garden of Mughal which has a linear rectangular design includes excellent features and its special spaces indicate a look beyond the mundane beliefs in an interesting paradox. In other words, while the mundane gardens represent the blessing of God, the true garden is located in the heart of man. In the case the garden is an introduction of a mental narrative beyond the beauty of the material world.