نمونه قبلی : زمینه‌ساز خلاقیت یا تقلید در طراحی منظر

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی، دانشکده هنر معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمان

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشکده هنر معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمان

چکیده

عقاید‭ ‬متفاوتی‭ ‬در‭ ‬رابطه‭ ‬با‭ ‬تأثیر‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ ‬بر‭ ‬آموزش‭ ‬دانشجویان‭ ‬وجود‭ ‬دارد‭. ‬درحالی‌که‭ ‬برخی‭ ‬این‭ ‬امر‭ ‬را‭ ‬عاملی‭ ‬برای‭ ‬افزایش‭ ‬خلاقیت‭ ‬دانشجویان‭ ‬تلقی‭ ‬می‌کنند‭ ‬برخی‭ ‬معتقدند‭ ‬که‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ ‬تنها‭ ‬زمینه‌ساز‭ ‬تقلید‭ ‬از‭ ‬ایده‌ها‭ ‬و‭ ‬نه‭ ‬خلق‭ ‬ایده‌های‭ ‬نوین‌اند‭. ‬گرچه‭ ‬بررسی‭ ‬نقش‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ ‬در‭ ‬طراحی‭ ‬دانشجویان‭ ‬در‭ ‬زمینه‌های‭ ‬مختلف‭ ‬طراحی‭ ‬سنجیده‭ ‬شده‭ ‬کمتر‭ ‬تحقیقی‭ ‬به‭ ‬نقش‭ ‬آن‭ ‬در‭ ‬آموزش‭ ‬منظر‭ ‬پرداخته‭ ‬ست‭. ‬تحقیق‭ ‬حاضر‭ ‬بر‭ ‬آن‭ ‬ست‭ ‬که‭ ‬در‭ ‬ابتدا‭ ‬طی‭ ‬یک‭ ‬تحقیق‭ ‬کیفی‭ ‬الگوهای‭ ‬متفاوت‭ ‬استفاده‭ ‬از‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ ‬را‭ ‬توسط‭ ‬دانشجویان‭ ‬بسنجد‭ ‬و‭ ‬در‭ ‬ادامه‭ ‬دلایل‭ ‬کپی‌برداری‭ ‬از‭ ‬ایده‌ها‭ ‬را‭ ‬در‭ ‬طراحی‭ ‬منظر‭ ‬از‭ ‬زاویه‭ ‬دید‭ ‬دانشجویان‭ ‬بیان‭ ‬کند‭. ‬برای‭ ‬دستیابی‭ ‬به‭ ‬اهداف‭ ‬تحقیق‭ ‬از‭ ‬روش‭ ‬تحقیق‭ ‬ترکیبی‭ (‬کیفی‭ ‬و‭ ‬کمی‭) ‬استفاده‌شده‭ ‬است‭. ‬نتایج‭ ‬بخش‭ ‬کیفی‭ ‬تحقیق‭ ‬سه‭ ‬الگوی‭ ‬استفاده‭ ‬از‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ ‬را‭ ‬در‭ ‬پروژه‌های‭ ‬دانشجویان‭ ‬مشخص‭ ‬کرد‭. ‬گروه‭ ‬A‭ ‬به‌طور‭ ‬خلاقانه‌ای‭ ‬از‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ ‬در‭ ‬ارائه‭ ‬راه‌حل‌های‭ ‬جدید‭ ‬استفاده‭ ‬کرده‭ ‬بودند‭. ‬گروه‭ ‬B برخی‭ ‬از‭ ‬عناصر‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ ‬را‭ ‬برای‭ ‬استفاده‭ ‬جدا‭ ‬کرده‭ ‬یا‭ ‬برخی‭ ‬از‭ ‬ویژگی‌ها‭ ‬را‭ ‬به‌طور‭ ‬کامل‭ ‬مدل‌سازی‭ ‬کرده‭ ‬بودند‭. ‬گروه C‭ ‬کل‭ ‬نمونه‭ ‬را‭ ‬کپی‭ ‬کرده‭ ‬بود‭. ‬به‭ ‬دنبال‭ ‬مشاهده‭ ‬و‭ ‬مصاحبه‌های‭ ‬متمرکز‭ ‬دلایل‭ ‬شیوه‌های‭ ‬متفاوت‭ ‬استفاده‭ ‬از‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ ‬با‭ ‬دانشجویان‭ ‬به‭ ‬بحث‭ ‬گذاشته‭ ‬شد‭. ‬نتایج‭ ‬این‭ ‬بخش‭ ‬از‭ ‬تحقیق‭ ‬به‌عنوان‭ ‬مبنایی‭ ‬برای‭ ‬بخش‭ ‬کمی‭ ‬تحقیق‭ ‬مورداستفاده‭ ‬قرار‭ ‬گرفت‭. ‬نتایج‭ ‬بخش‭ ‬کمی‭ ‬تحقیق‭ ‬نشان‭ ‬داد‭ ‬که‭ ‬کمبود‭ ‬وقت،‭ ‬نداشتن‭ ‬تجربه‭ ‬کاری،‭ ‬علاقه‌مندی‭ ‬به‭ ‬یک‭ ‬طرح‭ ‬خاص‭ ‬و‭ ‬مهارت‭ ‬در‭ ‬سه‌بعدی‭ ‬سازی‭ ‬با‭ ‬نرم‌افزارهای‭ ‬طراحی‭ ‬از‭ ‬مهم‌ترین‭ ‬دلایلی‭ ‬ذکر‭ ‬شدند‭ ‬دانشجویان‭ ‬را‭ ‬به‭ ‬کپی‌برداری‭ ‬صرف‭ ‬از‭ ‬تمام‭ ‬و‭ ‬یا‭ ‬بخشی‭ ‬از‭ ‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬قبلی‭ (‬نمونه‌های‭ ‬اجراشده‭) ‬ترغیب‭ ‬می‌کنند‭.‬

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Do Design Precedents Encourage Copy- Paste or Creativity in Landscape Design?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Khozaei 1
  • Mahbubeh Khalouee 2
چکیده [English]

There are various perceptions about the impacts of design precedents on studentseducation. While some do believe that design precedents enhance the studentscreativity some others believe that design precedents facilitate copying the ideas and do not increase the possibility of creation of new ideas. There have been several studies on the effect of design precedents on the studentsoutcome however there are few studies that have concentrated on the subject in landscape pedagogy. The current study aims to understand the studentsdifferent possible patterns of application of design precedents on their project applying a qualitative research method. It further attempts to understand the reason behind the studentscopying from their own point of view. In order to achieve the studys aims mixed research method approach has been used. The result of qualitative research method reveals three patterns of application of design precedents. Group A used design precedents creatively in order to create new ideas. The group B modeled partially some parts of design precedents and group C copied completely a design precedent. A focus group and a series of interviews were conducted with the students to understand the reason behind copying ideas. The result of this part created a pool of item for conducting of quantitative research method. The result of this part revealed that lack of time, lack of working experiences, being interested in a particular design and even being professional in using of a 3D software may lead to copying a part or whole of a design precedents. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Design precedents
  • Creative Thinking
  • Architecture pedagogy
  • Landscape Design

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