منظر ایرانی : رابطه دوگانه

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

روستاهای‭ ‬ایران‭ ‬مرز‭ ‬روشنی‭ ‬با‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬ندارند‭. ‬برای‭ ‬آن‌ها‭ ‬ساخت‌وساز‭ ‬برای‭ ‬سکونت،‭ ‬همسان‭ ‬با‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬شکل‭ ‬می‌گیرد‭. ‬در‭ ‬نظر‭ ‬ایرانی‭ ‬طبیعت،‭ ‬موجودی‭ ‬است‭ ‬که‭ ‬زندگی‭ ‬و‭ ‬جریان‭ ‬خود‭ ‬را‭ ‬دارد‭ ‬و‭ ‬برای‭ ‬همسایگی‭ ‬با‭ ‬او،‭ ‬باید‭ ‬سازگاری‭ ‬نشان‭ ‬داد‭. ‬مهار‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬یا‭ ‬جدایی‌گزینی‭ ‬از‭ ‬آن‭ ‬خوش‌عاقبت‭ ‬نیست‭. ‬همسازی‭ ‬با‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬در‭ ‬طول‭ ‬تاریخ‭ ‬تدریجاً‭ ‬زیبایی‌شناسی‭ ‬خاصی‭ ‬را‭ ‬در‭ ‬روستای‭ ‬ایرانی‭ ‬پدید‭ ‬آورده‭ ‬است‭ ‬که‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬بکر‭ ‬در‭ ‬آن‭ ‬جایگاه‭ ‬پراهمیتی‭ ‬دارد‭. ‬صحنه‌هایی‭ ‬نیز‭ ‬که‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬در‭ ‬جریان‭ ‬حیات‭ ‬خود‭ ‬می‌آفریند،‭ ‬زیباست؛‭ ‬چه،‭ ‬در‭ ‬نظر‭ ‬ایرانی‭ ‬صحنه‌های‭ ‬طبیعی،‭ ‬تصادفی‭ ‬پدید‭ ‬نیامده‌اند‭ ‬بلکه‭ ‬محصول‭ ‬فعالیت‭ ‬نظاماتی‭ ‬در‭ ‬دل‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬هستند‭ ‬که‭ ‬بسیاری‭ ‬از‭ ‬آن‌ها‭ ‬برای‭ ‬ما‭ ‬روشن‭ ‬نیست‭. ‬اما‭ ‬همچون‭ ‬هندسه‭ ‬فرکتال،‭ ‬در‭ ‬پس‭ ‬ظاهر‭ ‬متنوع‭ ‬خود،‭ ‬از‭ ‬نظمی‭ ‬قابل‌دسترسی‭ ‬برخوردارند‭. ‬
ازاین‌روست‭ ‬درختی‭ ‬که‭ ‬تنهایی‭ ‬توانسته‭ ‬با‭ ‬صخره‌های‭ ‬کوهستان‭ ‬تعامل‭ ‬حیاتی‭ ‬داشته‭ ‬باشد،‭ ‬به‌عنوان‭ ‬بخشی‭ ‬از‮«‬‭ ‬موجود‮»‬‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬به‭ ‬رسمیت‭ ‬شناخته‭ ‬می‌شود‭ ‬و‭ ‬باقی‭ ‬می‌ماند‭. ‬چنین‭ ‬تک‌درخت‌هایی‭ ‬در‭ ‬منظر‭ ‬ایران‭ ‬به‌وفور‭ ‬دیده‭ ‬می‌شود؛‭ ‬و‭ ‬چه‌بسا‭ ‬پدید‭ ‬آمدن‭ ‬سه‌گانه‭ ‬منظر‭ ‬ایرانی،‭ ‬که‭ ‬منظری‭ ‬تاریخی‭ ‬و‭ ‬مصنوع‭ ‬است،‭ ‬ناشی‭ ‬از‭ ‬قدرت‭ ‬و‭ ‬اصالت‭ ‬چنین‭ ‬رویکردی‭ ‬در‭ ‬تاریخ‭ ‬فرهنگ‭ ‬ایران‭ ‬بوده‭ ‬باشد‭. ‬
خانه‌هایی‭ ‬میان‭ ‬صخره‌ها،‭ ‬تقلید‭ ‬از‭ ‬حیات‭ ‬درخت‭ ‬در‭ ‬لابه‌لای‭ ‬آن‌هاست‭. ‬همان‌طور‭ ‬که‭ ‬درخت‭ ‬پیرامون‭ ‬خود‭ ‬به‭ ‬سازگاری‭ ‬رسیده،‭ ‬خانه‌ها‭ ‬هم‭ ‬در‭ ‬اندازه‭ ‬و‭ ‬شکلی‭ ‬محدود،‭ ‬همسازی‭ ‬با‭ ‬محیط‭ ‬را‭ ‬تقلید‭ ‬کرده‌اند‭ ‬و‭ ‬هر‭ ‬سه‭ ‬باهم‭ ‬زندگی‭ ‬به‭ ‬تعادل‭ ‬رسیده‌ای‭ ‬را‭ ‬ادامه‭ ‬می‌دهند‭. ‬
در‭ ‬سوی‭ ‬دیگر،‭ ‬شهرهای‭ ‬ایرانی،‭ ‬اغلب‭ ‬لبه‌ای‭ ‬قاطع‭ ‬و‭ ‬متضاد‭ ‬با‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬دارند‭. ‬در‭ ‬بیشتر‭ ‬نمونه‌ها،‭ ‬حصاری‭ ‬قوی‭ ‬مرز‭ ‬میان‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬و‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬را‭ ‬تعریف‭ ‬می‌کند‭. ‬این‭ ‬لبه‭ ‬آن‌قدر‭ ‬قوی‭ ‬است‭ ‬که‭ ‬برای‭ ‬تردد‭ ‬میان‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬و‭ ‬طبیعت،‭ ‬دروازه‌ای‭ ‬به‌مثابه‭ ‬فضای‭ ‬واسط‭ ‬ساخته‭ ‬می‌شود‭ ‬و‭ ‬‮«‬رفتار‮»‬‭ ‬ارتباط‭ ‬میان‭ ‬این‭ ‬دو‭ ‬چنان‭ ‬پراهمیت‭ ‬می‌گردد‭ ‬که‭ ‬دروازه‌ها‭ ‬نمادهای‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬می‌شوند‭ ‬و‭ ‬تعیین‌کننده‭ ‬ساختار‭ ‬و‭ ‬ستون‭ ‬فقرات‭ ‬شهر‭.‬
جدایی‌گزینی‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬و‭ ‬پیرامون‭ ‬در‭ ‬مقابل‭ ‬همسازی‭ ‬روستا‭ ‬با‭ ‬محیط،‭ ‬دو‭ ‬رویکرد‭ ‬متضاد‭ ‬به‌حساب‭ ‬می‌آید‭. ‬چرایی‭ ‬آن‭ ‬را‭ ‬در‭ ‬سرشت‭ ‬و‭ ‬سرنوشت‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬باید‭ ‬جستجو‭ ‬کرد‭. ‬از‭ ‬دیرباز،‭ ‬حصار،‭ ‬لبه‌ای‭ ‬معنا‭ ‬بخش‭ ‬به‭ ‬ساکنان‭ ‬درون‭ ‬آن‌ها‭ ‬بوده‭ ‬که‭ ‬قلعه‭ ‬امن‭ ‬را‭ ‬به‭ ‬وجود‭ ‬آورده‭ ‬است‭. ‬شهرها،‭ ‬پس‌ازآن‭ ‬و‭ ‬با‭ ‬تبعیت‭ ‬از‭ ‬همان‭ ‬روش‭ ‬برای‭ ‬حفظ‭ ‬خود‭ ‬و‭ ‬دارایی‭ ‬ساکنان،‭ ‬هم‌آغوش‭ ‬با‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬را‭ ‬به‭ ‬قیمت‭ ‬امنیت‭ ‬رها‭ ‬کردند‭. ‬درعین‌حال،‭ ‬شهروند‭ ‬ایرانی،‭ ‬در‭ ‬شهرهای‭ ‬پیش‭ ‬از‭ ‬اسلام‭ ‬و‭ ‬در‭ ‬پناه‭ ‬دیوارها‭ ‬انسانی‭ ‬ممتاز‭ ‬بود‭ ‬که‭ ‬در‭ ‬جایگاه‭ ‬اجتماعی‭ ‬بالاتری‭ ‬از‭ ‬ساکنان‭ ‬پیرامون،‭ ‬که‭ ‬در‭ ‬دل‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬جای‭ ‬داشتند،‭ ‬می‌ایستاد‭. 
صرف‌نظر‭ ‬از‭ ‬سده‌های‭ ‬نخستین‭ ‬دوره‭ ‬اسلامی‭ ‬که‭ ‬حصار‭ ‬شهرها‭ ‬با‭ ‬شعار‭ ‬برابری‭ ‬اجتماعی‭ ‬اهالی‭ ‬درون‭ ‬و‭ ‬بیرون‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬فروریخت،‭ ‬سنت‭ ‬دیرین‭ ‬ممتاز‭ ‬گرداندن‭ ‬مکان‭ ‬زیست‭ ‬شهروندان،‭ ‬این‭ ‬بار‭ ‬به‭ ‬بهانه‭ ‬یا‭ ‬دلیل‭ ‬امنیت‭ ‬ایجاد‭ ‬شد‭. ‬نتیجه‭ ‬قهری‭ ‬این‭ ‬باززنده‌سازی،‭ ‬جدایی‌گزینی‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬از‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬بود‭ ‬که‭ ‬در‭ ‬دوره‭ ‬مدرن،‭ ‬با‭ ‬صورتی‭ ‬آذین‌شده‭ ‬ادامه‭ ‬یافت‭. ‬کمربندهای‭ ‬سبز‭ ‬شهرهای‭ ‬امروزی،‭ ‬اگرچه‭ ‬در‭ ‬نگاه‭ ‬خرد‭ ‬و‭ ‬جزءنگر،‭ ‬فضاهای‭ ‬مطلوبی‭ ‬برای‭ ‬محیط‌زیست‭ ‬یا‭ ‬خدمات‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬پدید‭ ‬می‌آورند‭ ‬اما‭ ‬از‭ ‬منظر‭ ‬کل‌نگر،‭ ‬همچنان‭ ‬بر‭ ‬دوگانگی‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬و‭ ‬پیرامون‭ ‬اصرار‭ ‬می‌ورزند‭ ‬و‭ ‬رابطه‌ای‭ ‬قهرآمیز‭ ‬با‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬محیط‭ ‬خود‭ ‬برقرار‭ ‬کرده‌اند‭. ‬رابطه‌ای‭ ‬که‭ ‬تأکید‭ ‬ویژه‭ ‬و‭ ‬پررنگی‭ ‬بر‭ ‬حفظ‭ ‬فاصله‭ ‬و‭ ‬حتی‭ ‬تبدیل‭ ‬آن‭ ‬به‭ ‬یک‭ ‬موجود‭ ‬مستقل‭ ‬که‭ ‬حائل‭ ‬شهر‭ ‬و‭ ‬طبیعت‭ ‬باشد‭ ‬دارند‭. ‬

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Iranian Landscape: Double Relation

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed-Amir Mansouri
چکیده [English]

Villages of Iran do not maintain a clear border with nature. In these villages, construction for habitation is harmonized with nature. As Iranians believe, nature is an entity having its own life and flow and neighboring the nature occurs in adaptation with it. Conquering nature or rupturing with nature is not agreeable in their beliefs. Consistency with nature during the course of history has gradually created a specific type of aesthetics in the Iranian rural regions where pristine nature is significantly admired. The scenes that nature creates during its lifetime is stunning; since Iranians consider nature as the product of systematic activities within nature rather than accidental scenes, the activities many of which are not clear to us in nature. However, alike fractal geometry, they depend on an adjustable arrangement beyond their offering variety.
Therefore, a tree that has long been able to interact with mountain rocks is recognized as a part of the "existing" nature. Such trees are seen abundantly in Persian landscape. Moreover, the emergence of the Persian triple landscape, that is also a historical and artistic landscape, is due to the power and authenticity of such an approach in the history of Persian culture.
The houses built in the rocks can be considered as the imitation of a tree's survival among the mountains. As the trees are adapted to nature, the houses imitate the adaptation to the environment in terms of size and shape and the three continue their life in a harmonious equilibrium.
However, Iranian cities often have contradictory edges to nature. In most cases, a solid barrier is defined between the city and nature. This edge is so evident that some gates are built as thresholds when passing from the cities to nature. The "behavior" in communicating the city and nature has become so significant that the gates have become the symbol of the city and they determine the city structure and organization.

The separation of the city and the surrounding in contrast to the reconciliation of the village with the environment are two opposing approaches. The reasons for that have to be sought in the entity and destiny of the city. For a long time, the barriers were recognized as a meaningful edge for the inhabitants inside, creating a secure citadel. Subsequently and in accordance with the same method, the cities ignored to harmonize themselves to nature in order to preserve themselves and their inhabitant's property for sake of security. Nevertheless, an Iranian citizen was a privileged person in a pre-Islamic city and stood in a higher social position than the inhabitants of the surrounding nature.
Regardless of the early centuries of the Islamic era when the city walls were collapsed to realize the social equality of people inside and outside the city, the old tradition of privileged living space was created on the pretext of security. The severe result of this rebirth was the separation of the city from nature, which continued in the modern period by adding ornamentation. Although the green belts of the modern cities create favorable spaces for the environment or city services in detail, they continue to maintain the duality of the city and the surrounding and establish an incompatible relation with their natural environment in a holistic point of view; a relation that emphasizes on transforming it into an independent entity that buffers the city and the nature. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Persian culture
سید امیر منصوری، استادیار معماری منظر، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران