طبیعت‌گرایی، یافتۀ امروزین سیاست‌های شهری؛ مقایسۀ چهار رویکرد در مدیریت منظر شهری

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

استاد دانشکده معماری وال دو سِن پاریس

چکیده

هدف این مقاله معرفی و روشن ساختن برداشت‌های متفاوت از منظر شهری، از طریق مطالعۀ نمونه‌‌هایی است که در طی فعالیت‌های حرفه‌ای و دانشگاهی نگارنده بازدید شده‌اند. در این بررسی‌ها این‌طور به‌نظر می‌رسد که مسایل و پرسش‌های مربوط به منظر شهری، بیانگر دیدگاه‌هایی است که از شهر به شهر تغییر می‌‌کند و خود نشان‌دهندۀ رویکردهای بسیار متنوع، برنامه‌های مختلف برای توسعه و برداشت‌های چندگانه از شهر است.
مفهوم «منظر» در فرهنگ غربی برآمده از محیط زیست طبیعی است1. این مقاله، با نگاهی به منظر که پیش از هر‌چیز بر مفهوم «کلاسیک» آن تکیه دارد، سعی در تبیین دقیق‌تر مفاهیم منظر شهری و سیمای شهر برآمده است. در ادامه خواهیم دید که این پیشینۀ طبیعت‌گرا، در توسعه‌های معاصر با رویکردهای جدید و غیرمنتظره‌ای مواجه شده ‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Naturalism, current result of urban politics; Comparison of four approaches to the management of urban landscape

نویسنده [English]

  • Pierre Vincent
professor in School of Architecture Val de Seine, Paris, France
چکیده [English]

This paper tries to introduce and clarify different interpretations of urban landscape through studying the examples of this case which have been observed and analyzed by the author during her academic and professional experiences.
 Having these cases reviewed, it seems that the issues and question related to urban landscape, showcases different viewpoints that are different in each city. They also represent very various approaches and several plans for multiple developments in the city.
The concept of "landscape" is derived from the natural environment in the Western culture. This article emphasizes mostly on the “classic” concept of landscape to present the urban landscape and cityscape concepts particularly. In the following, this naturalist background faces unexpected and new approaches in these current developments.
In the first part the classic concept of landscape; the nature as a “beautiful view” is introduced. The “beautiful landscape” can be interpreted as a set of objects and actors on the stage where harmony is produced by their qualitative relations.
In the next part, the nature is introduced as an embrace and depositary of human activities. In this part the cultural landscape of Les Cévennes region is discussed as a landscape relied on domestication and migration.
The title of the third part is the “hidden dimension of landscape” and three different dimensions are mentioned for rural landscape: agronomy landscape, urban landscape and also a hidden subterranean landscape; this hidden dimension is a mental landscape and combination of multiple and diverse experiences beyond just visual experiences. Rural domains and the construction of underground storages are the specific characteristics of rural landscape in France.
The article continues introducing a preservative-archeological landscape approach and the Vexin natural park is discussed as a case study.
“Landscape and the Power Structure” is another title discussed in this article which is introduced as a result of a regulation obeying system. The western city has been formed based on military standards and it has been ruled by governors within their defensive fortifications. Gradually, a political system known as “municipality” was formed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • landscape
  • nature
  • Human activities
  • Rural- city
  • Urban landscape