Analysis of the Role of Passive Energy In the Evaluation of Kashan Houses

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Ph.D. in Architecture, Professor of Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 M.A. Student in Architecture, Faculty of Art & Architecture, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran.


Today’s world has been forced to perform actions based on the principles of sustainable development to compensate for the damage caused by industrialization and the mechanization of nature. However, In Iran, a country with an ancient civilization, ideas based on thoughtful interaction with nature had existed before the emergence of modernism. One of the effects of this interaction is the construction of buildings suitable for local climates without using fossil fuels for cooling and heating. This would result in environmental protection. Coping with the climate in the hot and dry desert regions of Iran has long been one of the most important concerns of Iranian architects. Iranian houses are one of the most durable Iranian buildings. Describing the architecture of the house has a wonderful meaning for everyone and they are aware of its important role in life. Since a significant amount of time in a human’s life is spent at home, thus energy consumption in this area is very thought-provoking. This survey aims to investigate the old houses of Kashan city from a climatic perspective and energy consumption. The study examines each space and compares the min terms of passive energy factors to identify climate-friendly designs and to save energy consumption in Kashan homes. In this survey, Kashan city was selected as a sample of a location with a hot and dry climate. The physical features of houses in this city were examined to understand how they deal with climatic conditions. The data associated with the characteristics of twenty historical houses were collected through field surveys and library and documentary studies. The descriptive and analytical method was examined after creating a questionnaire to achieve passive energy solution factors in selected samples. This article first describes and introduces the different features of each house in Kashan, such as courtyard, porch, types of chambers, basement, etc. Then an adaptation between these places and passive energy is done. In the next step, each of the components of passive energy is defined so that it can be used in contemporary architecture to optimize energy consumption. Like traditional architecture in this climate, houses can be designed by the climate with the current climate technology.


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