باغ یا پارک؟! تقابل مفاهیم در دو زبان مختلف

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی قزوین

چکیده

سال‌هاست بحث باغ، باغ‌سازی، و باغ ایرانی در ادبیات و متون معماری و شهرسازی مطرح بوده ‌است. این، جای خوشبختی است؛ ولی بدبختانه هر روز بیش از گذشته "باغ ایرانی" به معنایی که عموم می‌شناختند و می‌شناسند از محیط شهرهای ما رخت برمی‌بندد، بدون آنکه جای خالی آن حس شود. این‌طور به‌نظر می‌رسد که "پارک" جای آن را گرفته ‌است. این مقاله به بررسی موجز این موضوع اختصاص‌ یافته‌ است که چه فرق مفهومی و روش‌شناسانه بین باغ‌سازی و پارک‌سازی وجود دارد؟ آیا عنصری به نام پارک می‌تواند و باید جای باغ ایرانی را در جامعه بگیرد؟ چه اندیشه‌ای در این خصوص در جامعه ساری و جاری است؟ آیا ما می‌توانیم عنصری به نام باغ ایرانی را مانند سایر عناصر محیطیـ تاریخی به‌عمد به دست فراموشی بسپاریم (کاری که مثلاً در مورد خانه سنتی انجام داده‌ایم)؟ و اگر چنین کنیم چه تأثیری بر جامعه و فرهنگمان خواهد ‌داشت؟ در نهایت سعی شده ‌است، بر پایه رویکرد کل‌نگر، برخی توصیه‌ها در این خصوص ارایه ‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Garden or Park?! The Contrast of Definitions in Two Various Languages

نویسنده [English]

  • Nasser Barati
Staff member of Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Garden and gardening has been an opposed matter in literature as well as architecture and urbanism text for many years. This is a fortunate matter, but in contrary to that the general known “Iranian garden” has been ignored in the city environment insignificantly each day. Apparently, it has been replaced by “parks”. The “Iranian garden” is not just an architectural model in comparison to its mere models. The pattern, elements and the spatial structure of it is a summary of Iran and being Iranian in a way that ignoring the pattern of the Iranian garden leads to a cultural disaster. The Iranian garden is a miniature if Iran and being Iranian. After victimizing the “Iranian house” in return for “economic profits”, while there were chances of preserving the traditional houses in many ways and for multiple excuses, there is the same destiny for the Iranian garden. While there were many opportunities offered for the designers to organize the private, public and semi public zones and to create green spaces, they chose the contrary way. The Iranian garden is a considerable part of our cultural - linguistic life, but not just a place for spending the leisure time. This article tries to discuss whether there are any conceptual or methodological differences in gardening and creating parks and to see that is it possible for Iranian garden to be replaced by parks and is that correct? What are the main ideas behind these beliefs in the society? Can we forget an environmental - historical element such as gardens and how will these decisions impact our nation? The hypothesis in this article mentions that not only Iranian garden is a multi dimensional cultural case, but also an artistic one. The culture of every society has two subjective (meaning - symbolism) and objective (physical) unit. These two units can be permanent in the case of unity and cognitive adaption in the field of language. The garden and its other synonyms are the best examples of this allegation. This conformity forms the cognitive historical – cultural - linguistic subjectivity of a society. Therefore, the elimination of the “garden” and “gardening” can be used as a metaphor for disappearance of some of the major memories of a person caused by a clash.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iranian Garden
  • gardening
  • park