زندگی امروز، گمشدۀ توسعه شهری چین؛ از ویترین‌‌‌‌‌سازی عهد عتیق تا فانتزی‌های قرن 21 بر نمای شهر

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسندگان

کارشناس ارشد معماری منظر، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

با روند پرشتاب توسعه اقتصادی چین، چهار برابر شدن نرخ رشد این کشور در طول دو دهة اول قرن 21 و روند رو به رشد جهانی‌‌شدن، اجرای برنامه‌های توسعه‌ای گوناگون و عظیم در شهرهای مختلف چین امری دور از ذهن نیست. پکن و شانگهای از جمله شهرهایی هستند که با برخورداری از درهای اقتصادی باز و ارتباط با دنیای پیرامون قبل از سایر شهرهای چین جهانی‌شدن را تجربه کردند. در مسیر توسعه با بهره‌گیری از قانون عدم مالکیت شخصی، چهرة شانگهای به عنوان شهر تجاری و یکی از سه قطب اقتصادی دنیا و پکن به عنوان شهری توریستی، تاریخی و یکی از قدیمی‌ترین پایتخت‌های جهان، متحول شد.
در این توسعه شتاب‌زده دو رویکرد نسبتاً افراطی بر برنامه‌های توسعه شهرهای چین حاکم است؛ گاه اخذ رویکرد بین‌المللی که در آن بلوارهای وسیع، برج‌ها و مجتمع‌ها جایگزین بناهای ویران‌شده می‌شوند و گاه رویکرد تاریخی اساس کار می‌شود. در هر حال هر دو منعکس‌کننده تصویر چین قرن 21 هستند. بسیاری از پروژه‌های حاضر چین تقلیدی سطحی و ارزان از معماری گذشته یا شیفتگی به رویکردهای بین‌المللی است که سبب از دست رفتن تاریخ اکنون در شانگهای تجاری و پکن تاریخی شده است. دو منطقه «کیانمن» در شهر پکن و «پودونگ» در شهر شانگهای نمونه بارزی از توسعه‌های شهری اخیر کشور چین است. اتخاذ دو رویکرد مختلف به شکل‌دهی سیمای آنها نتایج متفاوت از درک و ذهنیت مخاطب را القا می‌کند.
در این تحقیق با معرفی دو رویکرد تاریخ‌گرا و بین‌المللی در دو نمونه کیانمن و پودونگ، نتایج تصمیمات مدیریت شهری در شکل دادن به نمای شهر مطابق با اهداف هویتی، کاربردی و زیباشناسی منظر شهری بررسی می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Today’s Life, the Lost Element in China’s Urban Development; From Ancient Urban Decorations to 21st Century Fancy Landscapes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Radaee
  • Narges Ghayem Amani
M.A. in Landscape Architecture, University of Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

As the economic growth is accelerated in China, the growth rate has been increased four times as much as this past rate during the first two decades of the 21st century and as the trend of globalization grows, the accomplishment of several large developmental programs is also expected. Beijing and Shanghai are among the cities that have experienced globalization earlier than other cities of China by their extended economy and communication in the world.
In this rapid growth, there are two rather radical approaches to the developmental programs of cities in China. Sometimes wider boulevards, towers, facilities and international approaches take the place of approaches that refers to East and China and sometimes the historic approaches are the basis of development, however, they both reflect the image of China in the 21st century. Most of the latest projects in China originate from cheap and shallow imitation of historic architecture or the fascination of international styles which have eventually resulted in loss of present history in trading and historic cities such as Shanghai and Beijing. The examples of the latest urban development are Beijing Qianmen and Shanghai Pudong regions where these dominant approaches have results in different shaping as well as completely opposite impression on people.
The issue of no personal property rights has totally transformed the appearance of Shanghai as a trading city and one of the three economic powers of the world and Beijing as a historic city for tourism and one of the oldest capitals of the the world. Beijing Municipal Administration adopted a historical approach in Qianmen restructuring plan due to historic background and tourism, therefore the Streets are brought back to their commercial glory of the Ming and Qing period according to the aesthetics of the period. However, the globalization in Shanghai followed “high-tech building industry” and combined the concepts of international development and regional features.
The latest historic buildings of Qianmen were ruined and imitated elements and facades took over the place. After the renewal, the street gained a new appearance which did not remind or resemble any other street. However the Pudong experience with its placeless towers made the area looked alike everywhere else in the world. Unlike the human scaled towers of Qianmn, the tall towers of Pudong, created a development of space based on the originality of vehicle transfer and transformed the longstanding tradition in China.  Diversity of colors and integrity of repeated elements (furniture and height) is prevailing in Qianmen (dictatoring façade) while a varied skyline and monotone facades are observed in Pudong. Furthermore, the lighting programs in Pudong have made aesthetical and functional influences on this façade of Shanghai.
Achieving full financial benefits from tourism, state ownership of land, large investment and hegemonism of real estate firms as well as cheap labor force eventually caused fundamental changes in city centers and urban parts and political maneuvering and a show of Chinese life has emerged as a result. But the pressure of rapid development and the non cultural purposes of the government lead to imitative historic approaches and shallow imitation of historical architecture and as a result China remains hidden behind facades of fake modern and antique today.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Façade
  • Qianmen street in Beijing
  • Historical approach
  • International approach
  • Pudong area in Shanghai