درخت در شهر تونس؛ فرضیه‌هایی از مفهوم فضای جمعی

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دکتری مدرسه عالی ملی منظر ورسای و انستیتو عالی گیاه‌شناسی شاوت ماریم، سوس، تونس

2 استاد مدرسه عالی ملی منظر ورسای

چکیده

تا قبل از ورود استعمار در سال ۱۸۸۱، کشور تونس اساساً بر کشاورزی استوار بود. علی‌رغم یکجانشین شدن زودهنگام جمعیت کوچ‌نشین، مراکز شهری نسبتاً مهم، به استثنای پایتخت یعنی شهر تونس، نادر بودند. شهر تونس که با الگوی شهرهای عربی سرزمین‌های مغربی ساخته شده بود، همزمان مرکز مذهبی، سیاسی و اقتصادی (خصوصاً تجاری) کشور به شمار می‌آمد و تحت فرمان «بی»1بود. شهر از طریق دروازه‌ها به جهات اصلی گشوده می‌شد و ارتباط آن را با مزارع وسیع کشت مرکبات و زیتون نیز برقرار می‌کرد. در آن زمان کشاورزی و تجارت بنیان زندگی شهروندان بود. به این صورت، ساکنان شهر تونس تجربه عملی و اقتصادی ویژه‌ای از درختان داشتند. در مقابل، این عنصر طبیعی در فرهنگ سنتی فضای جمعی غیبت کامل داشت و تسلط فعالیت‌های اقتصادی و مذهبی در این فضا دیده می‌شد. در فضای خصوصی خانه شهروند تونسی، پیش از دوران استعمار، ارتباط متفاوتی با درخت برقرار بود. این رابطه هرچند نیمه پنهان و ساده اما از آنجایی که یکی از اجزای تخیل جمعی (مشترک) شهروندان به شمار می‌آمد، از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار بود. با استعمار، الگوی شهر مستعمره فرانسه، با نوع جدیدی از ارزش‌های زیباشناسانه و اقتصادی روبرو شد که با رویکردهای «مدینه2» در تضاد بود. آنچه در ادامه خواهد آمد بررسی تحول مفهوم فضای جمعی در شهر تونس در دوران پیش از استعمار (اواخر قرن ۱۹) تا امروز با تکیه بر زمان‌های کلیدی روند تحول است. از این رو، برآن شدیم تا ارتباط درخت با شهر را در این زمان‌ها بررسی کنیم؛ آنجاکه درختی که ابتدا عنصر فضاهای خصوصی بود (آن زمان که فضای جمعی بسیار محدود بود)، تا جایی که این عنصر طبیعی با آغاز دوران استعمار، تحمیل کاربری‌های جدیدی را در فضای مشترک برخود دید و به شهروندان تصور و رابطه جدیدی را از فضای جمعی ارایه داد. استعمار با تغییر نگاه شهروندان موجب تحول عمیقی در مفهوم فضای جمعی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The tree in Tunis; Assumptions for the Concept of Public Space

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Bennour Azooz 1
  • Pierre Donadieu 2
1 Ph.D. researcher Versailles National School of Landscape and Chott Mariem agronomic Institute (ISA) Sousse, Tunisia
2 Professor at the Versailles National School of Landscape
چکیده [English]

Before the arrival of colonialism in 1881, Tunisia was based mainly on the agriculture. Despite the early settlement of the nomadic population, major urban centers, with the exception of the capital, Tunis, were almost rare.  Tunisian towns that were built by the style of Moroccan Arabic cities were simultaneously known as the religious, political, economical (and especially commercial) center of the country and they were under the command of the Bey. The city could be opened to the main directions and join the widespread cultivation of citrus and olive plantations. At the time, Agriculture and Business were the foundation of life for the city. In this case, the Tunisian residents had practical and economical experiences from the trees. In this paper, the transformation of the concept of public space since the pre-colonial period (late 19th century) to the present time in Tunisia is followed with a focus on significant times of history. Therefore, it tries to discuss the relationship of trees and the city in these special times; from the time when it was a part of private space ( the time where there were no public spaces), to the time when it carried a new function in common spaces and displayed a new relationship between the citizens and public spaces in the colonial period. The colonialism changed the public opinion about public spaces. Before tree colonialism; this natural element was absent in the traditional culture of public spaces and the commercial and religious activities were predominant in these spaces. There was a different relationship between a person and a tree in the private space of a traditional Tunisian house. This semi-hidden and simple relationship which was also known as a public (common) imagination of citizens was pretty worthy. The public space only had meaning in religious buildings such as mosques and schools. No tree was seen in public spaces because these spaces were allocated to religious and commercial (market) activities. Trees were located in houses especially in patios to offer a relaxing space. In this case, not only the functional aspect (beauty, freshness, fragrance, fruit) were considered, but also they reminded a paradise in Islamic tradition. Increasing of trees in Europeanized city began during French colonialism by relying on the concept of public space and its role in the structure of urban spaces. That resulted in organized cities with linear roads, streets and squares full of planted trees and open spaces, which were appropriate for impeding diseases such as cholera and plague, unaware of traditional central cities. The new decorative function of trees in new urban spaces and their network structures (streets) was the new policy of colonialism for companying the traditional culture of public spaces in Tunis with the concept of public space required for rapid communication, readability and interaction. Since the officials believed that the modern form of the city did not conflict their demands, there were a little change in the urban structure of colonial period after the independence of Tunisia. As a result, no basic changes were made in spatial organization neither of the city nor in the exterior spaces of Europeanized city. The migration of the rural population to urban spaces was noticeable since 1970. Consequently, the officials began to build new urban spaces and two main interventions were conducted in the North and West sides of the city. Tunis City has been constantly developing mostly in northern and south northern regions since 1980. New neighborhoods almost had the qualities of the adjacent neighborhoods as the northern developments included rich neighbors and west developments were allocated to poor ones. The northern part of the city continued developing in form of villas, buildings and other forms of housing. Therefore, after Tunisia’s independence, the «Europeanized» city development was mainly focused on the concepts of public space which were planned in future urban organization in colonial period. The consequent was a duality in the concept of space; a treeless traditional city and a functional, beautiful and useful public space with plenty of trees which reminds the colonial period.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tunis
  • The concept of public space
  • tree
  • Europeanized city