تفسیر منظرین: رمزگشایی از محوطه‌های تاریخی؛ کشف ساختار فضایی و منظرین مجموعه پاسارگاد

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

پژوهشگر دکتری معماری دانشگاه پلی‌تکنیک نانسی

چکیده

پاسارگاد در نگاه اول، دشتی است که چند بنای منفرد را در خود جای داده است بدون آنکه ارتباط معناداری با یکدیگر داشته باشند؛ آثار بناهایی پراکنده در دشت که به سختی می‌توان علت مکان‌یابی و احداث آنها را حدس زد. بازدیدکنندگان با دیدن وضعیت امروزی آن، هیچ تصوری از گذشته آن به دست نمی‌آورند. آیا این همه ماجراست؟ آیا در زمان هخامنشیان نیز پاسارگاد به عنوان مقر حکومتی_‌ آیینی کورش به همین شکل بوده است؟ این بناها چه نسبتی با یکدیگر دارند؟ از سوی دیگر، امروزه پوهشگران پاسارگاد را به عنوان اولین باغ ایرانی و الگوی باغ‌های پسین می‌دانند اما پرسش اینجاست این باغ چگونه بوده است؟ آیا باغی هندسی و منظم بوده یا یک باغ ارگانیک و نامنظم؟ تحلیل‌های منظرین با تکیه بر اسناد تاریخی و باستان‌شناسی با حاکی از آن است که کلیه بناهای دشت پاسارگاد در یک ساختار منظم فضایی احداث شده‌اند و باغی وسیع بر کلیه عناصر احاطه داشته است. «باغ شاهی» تنها بخش کوچکی از این مجموعه وسیع بوده و به بیان دیگر در پاسارگاد با یک طرح «باغ در باغ» روبه‌رو هستیم. این نوشتار پس از تحلیل مجموعه پاسارگاد براساس اسناد تاریخی (متون تاریخی و یافته‌های باستان‌شناسی) از منظر سومی که «رویکرد منظر» است به بررسی این مجموعه می‌پردازد و با توجه به سبک باغسازی ایرانی، سعی در واکاوی و کشف ساختار فضایی و منظرین مجموعه باغ‌های پاسارگاد دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Landscape Interpretation, an Approach to Decipher Secrets of Ancient Structures; Discovering spatial structure and landscape features of Pasargad Complex

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Mehrabani Golzar
Ph.D. candidate in Arcitecture, National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine, France
چکیده [English]

Iran’s anctient Pasargad site may appear in first look as a chain of individual structures that are overlooking a plain with no tangible relation between those structures. It may be to the same effect difficult to realize why Pasargard was ever built in its current location. Those who visit this site today may not be able to obtain an understanding about what the architects of Pasargad were thiking about when they decided to build it. But is this the whole story? Was Pasargard like its current shape during the era of the Achamenids who had picked it as their throne and the religious center of their empire? What is the relation between the structures of this site that had found a special position during the eign of Cyrus the Great?    On the other hand, many consider Pasargad as the first example of a Persian garden. It is generally believed that Pasargad later inspired the construction of Persian gardens.  But how was the Pasargad garden? Was it based on geometric designs or was it an organic garden in which no particular pattern could be found?   The present research is based on the assumption that Pasargad was based on a perfectly measured blueprint as indicated in historical documents. Another aspect of the assumption is that Pasargad comprised a garden in which all elements of Persian garden existed. The present research further assumes that there is a tangible relation between different structures of Pasargad and the whole site is based on a unified geometric design.    In order to better identify the potential pattern dominating the construction of Pasargad site, the present research looks at the details of Pasargad architectural layout from three different perspectives.  First, the research will try to prove the existence of an order between the structural elements of Pasargad through archeological findings. Next, the existence of a garden and geometrical designs is proved by drawing referencs to historical texts about Pasargad.  And finally, there will be an analysis of the structural elements and their relation to each other from the viewpoint of landscape. It is expected that the results of these three stages would provide a clear understanding of Pasargad spatial structures.         The purpose of analyzing the landscape features of a historical site is to identify the links between the visual elements and their functions in a way that the original format and shape of the site becomes clear particularly those which have to a large degree withered over time.  This analysis can as useful as the archeological excavations and historical texts in understanding the details of an ancient structure. Besides, the dominant viewpoint in the discipline of archeology is detailed and very conservative whereas the discipline of landscape analyzes the facts through a holistic and aggressive approach. Therefore, once these two are put together, there will be a more precise analysis of historical sites.With regards to the analysis of Pasargad site from the viewpoint of landscape, one must look for the reasons for the positioning of different structures and the relevance of their landscapes to the structures. It is common knowledge that axis has a key role in Persian gardens as has already been seen in many historical sites.  Also, the structures in historical sites in Iran are based on symmetrical patterns.Therefore, the following points can be concluded with regards to Pasargad site:  The connection between the tomb of Cyrus the Great with the Royal Garden and the entrance that overlooks the main avenue in the Garden was carefully designed and the arrangement of this connection is not accidental.   The pathways that originate from Gate R, the tomb of Cambysis and Palace A and fall on the main avenue have similar features in terms of construction technicalities.  The recurrence of those similarities leads to the tomb of Cyrus. The distance between the tomb which is believed to host Camysis to the main avenue is exactly the same as the distance between Gate R and the avenue. This means that there are two synchronical pathways to the avenue in the Royal Garden.   A look at the patterns of the pathways and their relations to each other helps clarify the spatial structure of Pasargad complex. The arrangements of none of the above cases can be considered as accidental.   Therefore, an analysis of the historical documents and archeological findings from the viewpoint of landscape shows that all the structures in Pasargad complex were constructed based on a well-organized spatial design and a large garden overlooked all of the structures. The Royal Garden was only a part of this massive complex. In other words, Pasargad comprised a combination of gardens. Apart from these, nothing specific can be decalred with regards to other architectural features of Pasargad by relying on the existing documents and any conclusion to that effect remains at the level of speculation.This has further highlighted the need for conducting more researches over this ancient heritage. In fact, more efforts like those taken up by the French group led by Remy Boucharlat are needed to shed light on the unknown dimensions of this historical site.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pasargadae gardens
  • Royal garden
  • Landscape interpretation
  • spatial structure
  • Geometrical order