نقش عوامل محیطی در پرورش خلاقیت کودکان

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

پژوهشگر دکتری معماری دانشگاه تهران، عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز

چکیده

در بررسی ادبیات خلاقیت و نحوه بروز و پرورش آن، پرواضح است که تعداد اندکی از تحقیقات به مسئله محیط و تأثیر آن در شکل‌گیری خلاقیت اشاره داشته‌اند که این موضوع لزوم تحقیقات بیشتر در این زمینه را خاطر نشان می‌سازد. امروزه مسئله و موضوع قابل توجه در حوزه رشد شناختی کودکان این است که آنها به جای ماجراجویی در محیط پیرامون، به دنبال ماجراجویی در تخیل، افسانه‌ها و تقلید از تلویزیون و بازی‌های کامپیوتری هستند و حاصل سخن اینکه کودکان دوران کودکی تصنعی را سپری می‌کنند که دقیقاً و تحقیقاً توسط بزرگسالان ساخته و پرداخته شده است. مهم‌ترین پیامد منفی این نحوه از رشد کودکان این است که نمی‌توان از آنها انتظار انسانی خلاق و کنجکاو داشت. چرا که کودکان در محیط‌های با کیفیت پایین از نظر تحرک و انعطاف‌پذیری و فعالیت آزاد ، در نهایت و به صورت بالفعل تبدیل به یک مصرف‌کننده افکار خواهند شد نه "تولید‌کننده" آن. این نوشتار قصد دارد پس از آشنایی با مفهوم خلاقیت به نقش و اهمیت عوامل محیطی در پرورش خلاقیت کودکان و در نهایت به ارایه پیشنهادی در خصوص خلاقیت و برنامه‌ریزی شهری بپردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Environmental Effects on Developing Creativity in Children

نویسنده [English]

  • Minoo Gharebeigloo
Ph.D. in Architecture, Faculty member of Tabriz Art University
چکیده [English]

It is quite obvious that there have been a few researches on environment and environmental effects on developing creativity in the field of creativity and its development and that clarifies the necessity of further researches in this field. In the field of cognitive development in children, children’s adventuring in their imaginations and their imitation from television and video game legends instead of adventuring in the surrounding environment is a considerable issue at the present time. In other words, children spend an "artificial childhood" that is exactly arranged by adults. In this case, the worse negative consequence is the way the children grow because they are not expected to express creativity or curiosity. The children who live in low-quality environments lacking mobility and free activity and flexibility, will eventually turn into idea “consumers” instead of idea “producers”.
Firstly; this paper tries to discuss the concept of creativity and effective factors on development in children in two categories: personal factors and environmental factors. A comparative discussion on the field of creativity explains that most researches about of creativity development have been carried out in the fields of psychology for gaining the techniques for individual creativity development while there have been a few ones on the effects of physical environments on developing creativity in children. However, most experts believe that the environment has more prominent role in developing creativity rather than personal factors and the Changes in environmental factors is much more convenient than individual characteristics and talents. In fact, we cannot focus creativity on one dimension. The individual, environmental, process and product dimensions cannot express their creative nature alone. Therefore, creativity is the result of personal factors, process and product of the social environment in which they interact.
Secondly; regarding the significant role of environmental effects on developing creativity in children, this paper declares that physical spaces are able to convert into places for developing creativity. These places should be designed in a way that the detection and tracking capabilities to fulfill all necessary facilities for a variety of child's social activities becomes possible and they can also underlie the opportunities to learn from the environment, and the shaping of child’s physical characteristics will be strengthened by their participation in these places. Focusing on education through free and self relying activities in children will lead to gaining personal experiences. Therefore, children will experience new things by interacting with the surrounding environment and expanding their mind libraries. They will be visually educated while having free activities in the physical environment and this will be effective on developing creativity in children.
Eventually; regarding creativity producing and urban planning, this paper suggests that urban open space as a significant mediator that connects children to the outside world has an essential role in their identification as well as their mental, physical and psychological growth and their social personality formation. The function of urban open space is an effective context for the process of improving knowledge and experiences of children's mental experiences and providing games and activities in formation of children's personality as well as enhancing their mental and physical abilities. In such environment, the children organize a system of information based on their previous knowledge. In this case a basis for future mental library of children will be shaped which will be considered the first step in developing creativity as explained in creativity section. Thus, urban open space is considered a type of learning and educating environment in childhood that includes a wide range of cognition and activities required for raising a creative person.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • creativity
  • Environmental effects
  • Urban open space