مجسمه در محیط یا بر محیط؟ نسبت میان مجسمه با محیط و مخاطب

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

کارشناس ارشد نقاشی و مجسمه سازی، مدرس دانشکده هنر دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

میزان موفقیت یک عنصر هنر شهری به زمینه‌گرایی اثر و  هم‌خوانی آن با فرصت‌های ارایه شده محیطی وابسته است. ارتباط بین مجسمه با فضا و نسبت حاکم میان شاخصه‌های فیزیکی (ابعاد، جنسیت) و غیر فیزیکی (موضوع، سبک، کارکرد) مجسمه‌ـ که در فرایند خلق اثر منجر به ایجاد شاخصه‌های ذهنی منظر شهر از جمله ایجاد هویت و خاطره ذهنی مشترک و حس تعلق می‌شودـ با مکان نصب اثر که شامل سه رکن، محیط، معماری و مخاطب است؛ از عوامل تأثیر‌گذار در قابلیت پذیرش مجسمه به عنوان یک مصداق هنر شهری است. تعیین نحوه ارزش‌گذاری و پررنگ‌کردن تعدادی از شاخص‌های ساختاری نسبت به دیگر شاخص‌ها، نقشی مشارکتی است که میان آفریننده اثر و منظرساز به عنوان عنصر هماهنگ‌کننده، مشترک است. این نوشتار با بررسی ویژگی‌های مجسمه و فضا به عنوان دو عامل اصلی شکل‌گیری هنر شهری، با ارایة چند نمونه از مجسمه‌های شهری دوره‌های مختلف شهر تهران، به بررسی این ارتباط پرداخته و دلایل رد یا پذیرش این آثار را در زمینة شهری عنوان می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sculpture, in/on the Environment? Relations of Sculpture with Environment and Audience

نویسنده [English]

  • Rouhollah Shamsi-Zadeh Malki
M.A. in Painting
چکیده [English]

Urban art emerged in cities after modernism. Prior to modernism, art was only available in private spheres, among aristocrats or in holy urban spaces. Hence, urban art is characterized by its popularity and its extended range of audience. Cities are products of the refinement of different civic processes which flow through the filter of time; hence, any element adjoined to a city must be formed in compliance with its contextual criteria in the proposed scale. This means that a mere focus of attention on a few structural elements of the city will weaken the work’s function and, as a result, the city itself. As instances of urban art, urban sculptures contribute to the physical and semantic definition of a public sphere. From the most simplistic possible view, any sculpture which can endure weather conditions such as heat and cold and aggressive acts of vandalism can be called an urban (outdoor) sculpture. Another naïve view point will call any sculpture built in the scale of meters (instead of centimeters) an urban sculpture. This is while, as academic studies demonstrate, the formation and success of urban sculptures as well as their spatial identities depend on relations between urban elements. In other words, the extent to which an instance of urban art gains prosperity is reliant on the work’s contextuality and its compliance with environmental potentials.
Factors which help define a sculpture as an instance of urban art include the sculpture-space relation and the relation between the sculpture’s physical (dimensions, materiality) and unphysical (subject, style, function) properties – which lead towards the mental properties of urban landscape such as identity, collective memories and belonging – and the space where it is installed, which is in turn centered on environment, architecture and audience. The sculptor and the coordinating urban landscape designer share the tasks of evaluating structural factors and highlighting certain factors against others. For a sculpture to be acknowledged as an urban work of art, there must be a symmetry between the sculpture (dimensions, subject, style, goals, function, etc), spatial specifications (environment, architecture, audience) and economical, social, political and cultural circumstances.
Studying sculpture and space as the two major formation factors of urban art and presenting instances of urban sculptures in Tehran from different points in history, the present article intends to investigate the above relation and find the reasons why these sample works were accepted or rejected in the urban context. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Art
  • Urban sculptures
  • Urban Space
  • Environment
  • Architecture
  • audience