عنوان مقاله [English]
The numerous wars such as the war against Russia in Qajar era, the World War II in Pahlavi era and the 8-year war against Iraq in the Islamic Republic of Iran are experiences that the contemporary Iran has tasted its flavor. On the other hand, the experience of existing urban sculpture in contemporary Tehran brings this question to mind that how the urban sculpture as a form of art, could reflect the war experience? And what approaches has been emerged in artworks over the representation of the war issue in different periods?
This article is based on a documentary research that, the statues have been discussed as a document. According to the historical documents and books, a total of 47 dated sculptures related to the war issue from the Qajar era up to 1389SH. were studied.
The results of this study showed that Tehran's sculptures can be divided into two main sections, "Qajar to the Islamic Revolution" and "Islamic Revolution to 2010". In the first section due to the much experiences and significant raids into the country, war is comprehended as the general definition means "aggression". Therefore, the government policy through the urban sculptures located in the squares - as a state element- is trying to project the military power; from the cannons, as the first examples, to the cavalry bodies of King. On the other side, the revolutionary concepts following the Constitutional Revolution (Mashrouteh) such as justice and freedom are also reflected in the mythical forms of fight in the square. In the second section, the Islamic Revolution caused another interpretation of the signified war; so that the war was interpreted as the Sacred Defense, and the myth-making, heroism and the revolutionary concepts and values had been targeted; Making the status and figurative sculpture of martyrs as a tribute to the heroes of the Sacred Defense, monuments and abstract sculptures of concepts such as martyrdom, resistance and courage, both in public (parks, squares, streets) and non-public (highway) spaces have been installed.