آیا «اکولوژی منظر» تعبیر درستی است؟

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

اکولوژی منظر، اصطلاحی است که در دو دهۀ اخیر رایج شده و تلاش دارد با بسط دامنۀ مطالعۀ خود به خواسته‌های جدید انسان از مکان پاسخ گوید. از سوی دیگر، منظر به‌عنوان رشته‌ای جدید که به تبیین ماهیت مکان می‌پردازد، ویژگی‌هایی را برای شناخت منظرین معرفی می‌کند که در چارچوب روش‌های متعارف اکولوژی نمی‌گنجد.
مقالات زیاد اکولوژیست‌ها در خصوص منظر تدریجاً تعریف آن را به ابعاد خاص و غالباً کالبدی معطوف می‌سازد که در کنار روابط اجتماعی و اقتصادی ساکنان اکوسیستم مطالعه می‌شود. این رویه با عدم پذیرش متخصصان منظر مواجه شده که اکولوژی منظر را علمی که به «آثار منظر» در محیط و نه «خود منظر» می‌پردازد می‌شناسند. برای تشریح دقیق مرز میان منظر و اکولوژی منظر و ارزیابی صحت‌وسقم این اصطلاح تأکید بر کلیدواژه‌های مرتبط راهگشاست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Is "Landscape Ecology" a Correct Interpretation?

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed-Amir Mansouri
چکیده [English]

Ecology is a knowledge on what exists outside. In contrast, landscape is “the outside” with our understanding of the confrontation with the outside. Ecology is a knowledge and it can be obtained in the absence of human. It is a reflection of reality, the way it really is.
Landscape is a wisdom which is emerged by human. It is the interpretation of reality and everyone has an understanding of his own.
Ecology belongs to the outside world. It defines phenomena and their relations and investigates the circumstances and conditions of life in the components and the whole. The science of ecology is developing and has transformed its atomistic approaches to holistic ones in its growth; nevertheless, despite the claims of modern ecologists admitting that ecology seeks for a holistic approach, it is still confined within the material world which cannot truly represent the whole. Although the authority of ecology is steadily growing deeper and broader, it cannot overpass the objective world.
Landscape is a fundamental understanding of a field between objectivity and subjectivity, both of which are involved. It is not considered as a science that can be interpreted by scientific tools. It both exists in the material world which accounts for its being related to science and is considered a mental interpretation of human that is not calibrated by scientific tools. The substance of this whole that is considered as landscape is knowledge and wisdom and has its own specific way of recognition and management.
In today sciences, where people recognize landscape through experience, we should be warned not to diminish the true meaning of landscape and rely on common terms to create a "pseudo-science" that is supposedly considered as interdisciplinary.
Landscape ecology is of this sort and cannot be considered as a new knowledge due to the noncompliance in the composition of its compartments, ecology and landscape. It can be said that landscape is a “whole” in which there is as an objective part that “ecology” studies. Therefore, landscape of a specific ecology is worth mentioning, but “landscape ecology” is not a correct interpretation.