عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The sixth conference of urban landscape phenomenology entitled "Martyr in Two Frames: Cinema and Urban Art" was held in the Tehran’s Institute for Culture, Art and Architecture Studies in December 2015.
The conference started by Dr. Agnès Devictor’s lecture on “War and the urban landscape”. Dr. Devictor is assistant professor in History of cinema at Sorbonne University. She presented an analysis of the cinema of war in Iran and the reflections of martyr concept in this art.
She indicated a general dualism in representation of war and martyrdom concept in Iranian cinema by analyzing some examples. While some movies demonstrate a classic narration of war under influence of western genres the others were produced in framework known as “sacred defense”. This second type of movies pointe to Karbala incident and demonstrate more creativity. In fact, in these movies, war is a pretext to deliver concepts beyond itself to the audience.
Also regarding urban art with the theme of war and martyrdom, she added: like cinema, we can witness the dualism of war-sacred defense in mural paintings in Iran. Some represent a classic demonstration of war and in the others an intersection of the real world with the subjective world, that is the symbolic aspect of Karbala incident, is displayed. In the early years after the war we observe more classic wall paintings in which the exact face of the martyr was depicted in a realistic way. However, the recent paintings display more abstract concepts of martyrdom.
The second part of the conference entitled "A Research on representation of martyrs in Tehran’s Landscape" continued by the presence of Mr. M. Sheibani, professor of landscape architecture at Shahid Beheshti University and Dr. Shohreh Javadi, professor of art history at University of Tehran, and began with a speech by Mr. Sheibani.
Having introduced the relation of landscape with other kinds of art, he explained “Folk Art” and society's perception of it. He mentioned: our art is a kind of pop art combined with ethnicity culture and religion culture. Meanwhile, our art has an essence of divinity in itself and a part of it is actually sacred.
The urban art and cinema are different; since urban art is a kind of collective folk art, while cinema is an art for people. The creators of art in folk art, are in fact the people themselves while in cinema the creator is an artist who has fully known public culture and tries to present it to people. The society needs to bring its past identity to the future. How these identities have to be presented, by films or wall paintings? Who is responsible to do it, government authorities, people or universities?
Dr. Javadi indicated the need to create new practices in urban arts to preserve our epic national and religious heritage in this field, and mentioned the role of artists, academics and administrators of this case. She quoted that young artists should be given the rich history that we've had in the field of arts and urban landscape in order to create new art. Some of the artworks can be depicted on city walls and some should be maintained as museum art. In addition, new types of art have to be emerged with which our young generation can communicate.
Mr. Sheibani finished his speech quoting that those who maintained our territorial integrity have brought us honor. As a result, we should look for ways to express this honor. Art cannot be dictated. Landscape architects, artists and painters have to be with people, feeling their love and needs. In fact, the way these concepts are delivered to people is of great significance.