تحلیل مفهوم منظر و رویکرد منظر از سطح نظری تا عرصۀ اجرایی: مرور ادبیات نظری

نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد معماری، دانشکده محیط زیست، دانشکدگان فنی دانشگاه تهران.

2 گروه معماری منظر، دانشکدۀ معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

3 پژوهشگر دکتری معماری منظر. دانشکدۀ معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر رویکرد منظر در کنار سایر رویکردها، به‌ سبب دیدگاه جامع و تبیین پارادایم‌‌های نو در باز تعریف رابطه انسان و محیط به‌طور گسترده‌ای مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. با این حال مفهوم واحد و دقیقی از چیستی و ماهیت آن ارائه نشده و وجود ادبیات نظری گسترده در رابطه با تعاریف منظر، ابهام در مفهوم و دشواری درکاربست آن را در پی داشته ‌است. هدف این پژوهش تبیین ماهیت و ابعاد مختلف رویکرد منظر از طریق تدوین مدل مفهومی با روش تحلیلی و مرور سیستماتیک از دو دیدگاه نظری و عملی ‌است. براساس یافته‌‌های این پژوهش، منظر از دیدگاه نظری و برمبنای آرای صاحب‌نظران درقالب یک پدیده عینی، کلیت عینی-ذهنی، پدیده زمانی-مکانی، تعامل میان طبیعت و فرهنگ و یا یک سیستم پیچیده تعریف شده است. همچنین منظر از دیدگاه عملی که رویکرد منظر خوانده می‌شود، بینش کل‌‌نگر و وجه کاربردی‌‌شده از مفاهیم نظری است. بر مبنای مرور سیستماتیک پژوهش‌های پیشین رویکرد منظر بر سه مؤلفه ماهیت مفهومی، اصول و ویژگی‌ها و فرایندهای مدیریت استوار است. ماهیت آن مرکب ‌از وجوه کالبدی-معنایی و تفسیری از چارچوب مفهومی منظر در سیستم انسانی-محیطی است. اصول و ویژگی‌های برآمده از این ماهیت، کل‌نگری، چندعملکردی، چندمقیاسی وجود ذینفعان متعدد، فرارشته‌ای، مشارکت، پویایی (اکولوژیکی-اجتماعی)، پیچیدگی و مبتنی بودن بر مکان است. همچنین مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی‌های یکپارچه، انطباقی، مشارکتی، زمینه‌گرا و تاب‌آور از استراتژی‌های اصلی رویکرد منظر در سطح مدیریت بوده که به واسطه دو فرایند برنامه‌‌ریزی-سیاست‌‌گذاری و تصمیم-پیاده‌‌سازی منجر به ایجاد دستورالعمل‌های اجرایی می‌شود. این رویکرد از طریق نظارت و کنترل موردارزیابی قرار گرفته و به‌منظور بسط و توسعه به صورت فرایندی چرخه‌ای و پیش‌رونده تحول می‌یابد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyses of Landscape Concept and Landscape Approach from Theoretical to Operational Levels: A Review of Literature

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Masnavi 1
  • Heshmatollah Motedayen 2
  • Parichehr Saboonchi 3
  • Morteza Hemmati 3
1 Professor of Architecture & Environmental Design, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran.
2 Landscape Architecture Department, School of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran,, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Candidate in Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In recent years, the integration of the landscape approach with other approaches has attracted wide attention for its holistic view and new paradigms redefining the relation of man and environment. Yet there is no consensus over precise definitions for the landscape, and landscape approach to reflect their essence. The extensive theoretical literature on landscape definitions has caused ambiguities in understanding these terms and concept and made its application difficult. The purpose of this study is to explore the nature and different dimensions of the landscape approach by developing a conceptual model.
Based on the findings of this study, from theoretical perspective, landscape is an objective phenomenon, and objective-subjective whole, or a temporal-spatial phenomenon born through the interactions between nature and culture, and hence a complex system. Also, from a practical view point, it is the landscape approach that deals with a holistic view and the applied aspect of theoretical concepts. The systematic review of previous research shows that, this approach is based on three components: conceptual nature, principles and characteristics, and management processes. Its nature is composed of physical-semantic aspects and presents an interpretation of the conceptual framework of landscape in the human-environmental system. The principles and characteristics that emerge from this nature are holistic, multifunctional, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, participatory, dynamic (ecological-social), complex, place-based, and can involve multiple stakeholders. Also, integrated, adaptive, participatory, contextual, and resilient dimensions are the main features of the landscape approach at the management level, which lead to the guidelines for their applications through two processes: planning policy-making and decision-implementation. This approach is evaluated through monitoring and controlling and evolves into a cyclical and progressive process to expand.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Landscape concept review
  • Landscape Approach
  • Landscape approach conceptual model
  • Theoretical perspective
  • Operational Level
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