نوسازی طبیعت‌گرا؛ رویکرد احیای طبیعت در بافت شهری سانتاکروز

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسندگان

کارشناس ارشد معماری منظر، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

انسانی که روزی خود را در دامن طبیعت می‌دید، امروز رابطه‌اش با طبیعت به سلطه تبدیل شده است. از این رو به دلیل شکاف عمیق بین انسان و طبیعت، حضور طبیعت و یا تقویت آن در شهر از عوامل ضروری در طراحی منظر شهری امروز محسوب می‌شود که باید بین شهر به‌عنوان یک جزء و طبیعت به‌عنوان یک کل، رابطه‌ای مطلوب برقرار کرد. «خوان مانوئل پالرم»، معمار منظر اسپانیایی، طبیعت را عاملی مهم در طراحی منظر و فراتر از یک نگرش سطحی می داند. وی با بیان اینکه معرفی مفهوم منظر از طریق تحقیق پیرامون اصل هویت است، سعی دارد از طریق ایجاد فضاهای جمعی با استفاده از بازسازی طبیعت تاریخی شهر، محیطی آشنا را برای شهروندان به عنوان یک نقطه شاخص شهری در دل شهر فراهم کند. پالرم در بازسازی دو پروژه "جاده سانتوس" و "پارک گارسیا سانابریا" در شهر سانتاکروز، توانست ایده‌هایش را به منظور استفاده از طبیعت در طراحی منظر به نمایش بگذارد و وارد فضای شهری کند. در نظریات پالرم، منظر به عنوان ابزاری، که می‌توان به وسیله آن فراتر از فردیت خود در جستجوی یک توافق جمعی باشیم، تعریف شده که محدودیتی برای آن وجود ندارد؛ در این راستا او ارتقای ابعاد فرهنگی منظر را در پی توجه به ساختار هویت جمعی می‌داند که از طریق آن هم‌زیستی بین تنوع فرهنگی و اعتقادات مربوط به جامعه معاصر برجسته می‌شود. در این نوشتار تلاش می‌شود با تحلیل دو پروژه، رویکردهای مختلف پالرم در پیوند طبیعت با بافت شهر مورد بررسی قرارگیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Naturalistic renovate; Renovating nature approaches in Santa Cruz city

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zhila Rajabi
  • Sahar Ardaneh
M.A in Landscape Architecture
چکیده [English]

Human manipulation in his habitat with the goal of achieving a place has consequently caused some changes in the pristine nature. It is obvious that people are away from their environment in formation of their cities and the relation and connection of people and nature has dwindled in built environment. Due to the formation of this big gap which is caused by human, amplifying the existence of nature in urban spaces is quite essential in urban landscape. An appropriate relation of nature as a whole and city as a compartment must be provided in urban spaces.
Juan Manuel Palerm, a Spanish landscape architect, profoundly considers nature an important factor in landscape design. He tries to recreate the lost nature within the cities by the use of designing landscape in the city structure. He declares that the concept of landscape can be introduced through researching its identity. He believes that creating public spaces by renovating the historic nature of the city will provide a readable and distinctive place within the city.
He has been able to showcase his ideas of using nature to the city structure in Santos road and the Garcia Sanabria Park renovation. Santa Cruz de Tenerife has drawn Palerm’s attention due to its historic background and having a natural valley which can be considered a focal point in relating human and nature. In his projects of renovating Santa Cruz spaces, his approach of providing a correlation between the city and the nature which enables both to penetrate through each other’s boundaries is prevailing. Renovating the historic fabric of the city by creating public spaces where the city and nature are combined and the green infrastructure enables a sustainable city and promotes the environmental quality are his main ideas behind his projects. Considering the approach of nature penetration into the city, Palerm had a significant role in renovating the Santos road landscape. This road is an ecological boundary which enables the environmental, social and ecological sustainability in the city as well as promoting the life quality within the city by adding essential functionalities to improve the quality of recreational places. In this way the amount of environmental destruction is reduced and the augmentation of the sense of security gives an identity and authenticity to the city. In the project of Garcia Sanabria Park which was designed by the idea of city penetrating into the densely surrounded nature, he has created a place for daily activities of the citizens by designing walking, reading and recreational places as well as omitting the barriers which separates the parks from the city. He designs various paths (intersective and curved ones) in his parks, in this way he features different experiences of spaces for the visitors. Indeed, he uses the landscape as a tool to achieve the goals in creating social and cultural spaces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • nature
  • Human
  • Landscape renovation
  • Urban Infrastructures
  • Identity
  • Manuel Palerm