نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی
1 عضو هیئت علمی گروه معماری، مؤسسۀ پژوهشی شیخ بهایی، تهران، ایران.
2 دانشیار معماری منظر، دانشگاه ژنو، سوئیس.
3 استادیار دانشکدۀ معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Chahar Taqi is the most frequent and basic volume in the Iranian Architecture. The structure of Mehr Temple, Anahita Temple, and then the fire temple was among the old functions of this element, which has been used as the main structure of the mosque and shrine after the advent of Islam. Many experts consider Chahar Taqi not only a functional element but also, an element with mythical and sacred aspects. Also, the mountain has been a multidimensional, functional, and sacred element among the Iranian myths. That is why many of the ancient rituals were held in the direct relationship with the mountains and the caves inside the mountains were considered as the first temples in Iran as other civilizations, and we witness that the Iranian have founded their own temples considering the sanctity of the mountain and cave. Sometimes, temples were built on the hillside or the top of the mountain, and sometimes, they were built in the form of the ziggurats and inspired by mountains such as Elamites. Therefore, man-made architecture adopts its sanctity from the mountain. Thus, Thus, questions arise on Chahar Taqi as what is the root of its sanctity and whether its mythical and sacred aspects, such as the ziggurat, can be related to the mountain. The current study investigates the common rituals of circumambulation and sacrifice between three elements of mountain, ziggurat (as intermediate) and Chahar Taqi. using qualitative research method, it also examines the relationship of each of these elements with Mehr or Sun through documentary study and exploratory approach. The results show that although ziggurats in Iran have been destroyed, the relationship between mountain and the architecture of the temples of Iran still exists. It can be said that this mythical relationship between Chahar Taqi and mountain has been established and in other terms, Chahar Taqi represents the continuity of the mountain’s sanctity in Iranian architecture.